# 550+ Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Multiple Choice Questions

1. An open tank contains 1 m deep water with 50 cm depth of oil of specific gravity 0.8 above it. The intensity of pressure at the bottom of tank will be________________?.

A. 4 kN/m2
B. 10 kN/m2
C. 12 kN/m2
D. 14 kN/m2.

2. The total pressure on a plane surface inclined at an angle 9 with the horizontal is equal to_______________?.
A. PA
B. pA sin 9
C. pA cos 9
D. pA tan 9.

3. Centre of buoyancy always_________________?.
A. coincides with the centre of gravity
B. coincides with the centroid of the volume of fluid displaced
C. remains above the centre of gravity
D. remains below the centre of gravity.
Answer = coincides with the centroid of the volume of fluid displaced

4. Metacentric height for small values of angle of heel is the distance between the________________?.
A. centre of gravity and centre of buoy-ancy
B. centre of gravity and metacentre
C. centre of buoyancy and metacentre
D. free surface and centre of buoyancy.
Answer = centre of gravity and metacentre

5. A rectangular block 2 m long, 1 m wide and 1 m deep floats in water, the depth of immersion being 0.5 m. If water weighs 10 kN/m3, then the weight of the block is________________?.
A. 5kN
B. lOkN
C. 15 kN
D. 20 kN.

6. If a vessel containing liquid moves downward with a constant acceleration equal to 'g' then_____________?.
A. the pressure throughout the liquid mass is atmospheric
B. there will be vacuum in the liquid
C. the pressure in the liquid mass is greater than hydrostatic pressure
D. none of the above.
Answer = the pressure throughout the liquid mass is atmospheric

7. An open cubical tank of 2 m side is filled with water. If the tank is rotated with an acceleration such that half of the water spills out, then the acceleration is equal to_______________?.
A. g/3
B. g/2
C. 2g/3
D. g.

8. The horizontal component of force on a curved surface is equal to the_______________?.
A. product of pressure intensity at its centroid and area
B. force on a vertical projection of the curved surface
C. weight of liquid vertically above the curved surface
D. force on the horizontal projection of the curved surface.
Answer = force on a vertical projection of the curved surface

9. The eddy viscosity for turbulent flow is______________?.
A. a function of temperature only
B. a physical property of the fluid.
C. dependent on the flow
D. independent of the flow.
Answer = dependent on the flow

10. In a two dimensional incompressible steady flow around an airfoil, the stream lines are 2 cm apart at a great distance from the airfoil, where the velocity is 30 m/sec. The velocity near the airfoil, where the stream lines are 1.5 cm apart, is_________________?.
A. 22.5 m/sec
B. 33 m/sec
C. 40 m/sec
D. 90 m/sec.

11. If the velocity is zero over half of the cross-sectional area and is uniform over the remaining half, then the momentum correction factor is_______________?.
A. 1
B. 4/3
C. 2
D. 4.

12. The continuity equation pi V,A,= p2V2A2 is based on the following assumption regarding flow of fluid______________?.
B. uniform flow
C. incompressible flow
D. frictionless flow.

13. The motion of air mass in a tornado is a________________?.
A. free vortex motion
B. forced vortex motion
C. free vortex at center and forced vortex outside
D. forced vortex at center and free vortex outside.
Answer = forced vortex at center and free vortex outside

14. Stream lines and path lines always coincide in case of__________________?.
B. laminar flow
C. uniform flow
D. turbulent flow.

15. In steady flow of a fluid, the total accele ration of any fluid particle______________?.
A. can be zero
B. is never zero
C. is always zero
D. is independent of coordinates.

16. Hot wire anemometer is used to measure_______________?.
A. discharge
B. velocity of gas
C. pressure intensity of gas
D. pressure intensity of liquid.

17. Which of the following is used to measure the discharge ?.
A. current meter
B. venturimeter
C. pitot tube
D. hotwire anemometer.

18. Size of a venturimeter is specified by________________?.
A. pipe diameter
B. throat diameter
C. angle of diverging section
D. both pipe diameter as well as throat diameter.

19. The discharge through a V- notch varies as______________?.
A. H1/2
B. H3'2
C. H5/2
D. H5'4 where H is head.

20. Coefficient of velocity of venturimeter_________________?.
A. is independent of Reynolds number
B. decreases with higher Reynolds number
C. is equal to the coefficient of discharge of venturimeter
D. none of the above.
Answer = is equal to the coefficient of discharge of venturimeter

21. Coefficient of discharge for a totally submerged orifice as compared to that for an orifice discharging free is__________________?.
A. slightly less
B. slightly more
C. nearly half
D. equal.

22. Coefficient of contraction for an external cylindrical mouthpiece is_________________?.
A. 1.00
B. 0.855
C. 0.7H
D. 0.611.

23. In a Sutro weir, the discharge is proportional to________________?.
A. H1/2
B. H3/2
C. H5/2
D. H.

24. Which of the following statements is correct ?.
A. Lower critical Reynolds number is of no practical significance in pipe flow problems.
B. Upper critical Reynolds number is significant in pipe flow problems.
C. Lower critical Reynolds number has the value 2000 in pipe flow
D. Upper critical Reynolds number is the number at which turbulent flow changes to laminar flow.
Answer = Lower critical Reynolds number is of no practical significance in pipe flow problems

25. The shear stress distribution for a fluid flowing in between the parallel plates, both at rest, is_______________?.
A. constant over the cross section
B. parabolic distribution across the section
C. zero at the mid plane and varies linearly with distance from mid plane
D. zero at plates and increases linearly to midpoint.
Answer = zero at the mid plane and varies linearly with distance from mid plane

26. The boundary layer thickness in turbulent flow varies as______________?.
A. x”7
B. x,/2
C. x4/5
D. x3/5.

27. Ay between two stream lines represents________________?.
A. velocity
B. discharge
D. pressure.

28. Stanton diagram is a______________?.
A. log-log plot of friction factor against Reynolds number
B. log-log plot of relative roughness against Reynolds number
C. semi-log plot of friction factor against Reynolds number
D. semi-log plot of friction factor against relative roughness.
Answer = log-log plot of friction factor against Reynolds number

29. When an ideal fluid flows past a sphere________________?.
A. highest intensity of pressure occurs around the circumference at right angles to flow
B. lowest pressure intensity occurs at front stagnation point
C. lowest pressure intensity occurs at rear stagnation point
D. total drag is zero.
Answer = total drag is zero

30. In which of the following the friction drag is generally larger than pressure drag?.
A. a circular disc or plate held normal to flow
B. a sphere
C. a cylinder
D. an airfoil.

31. The value of friction factor 'f' for smooth pipes for Reynolds number 106 is approximately equal to________________?.
A. 0.1
B. 0.01
C. 0.001
D. 0.0001.

32. Separation of flow occurs when_________________?.
A. the pressure intensity reaches a minimum
B. the cross-section of a channel is reduced
C. the boundary layer comes to rest
D. all of the above.
Answer = the boundary layer comes to rest

33. The distance from pipe boundary, at which the turbulent shear stress is one-third die wall shear stress, is_______________?.
A. 1/3 R
B. 1/2 R
C. 2/3 R
D. 3/4R.

34. The Prartdtl mixing length is_________________?.
A. zero at the pipe wall
B. maximum at the pipe wall
C. independent of shear stress
D. none of the above.
Answer = zero at the pipe wall

35. A fluid of kinematic viscosity 0.4 cm2/sec flows through a 8 cm diameter pipe. The maximum velocity for laminar flow will be__________________?.
A. less than 1 m/sec
B. 1 m/sec
C. 1.5 m/sec
D. 2 m/sec.

36. The wake_______________?.
A. always occurs before a separation point
B. always occurs after a separation point
C. is a region of high pressure intensity
D. none of the above.
Answer = always occurs after a separation point

37. The hydraulic grade line is_________________?.
A. always above the centre line of pipe
B. never above the energy grade line
C. always sloping downward in the direction of flow
D. all of the above.

38. If a sphere of diameter 1 cm falls in castor oil of kinematic viscosity 10 stokes, with a terminal velocity of 1.5 cm/sec, the coefficient of drag on the sphere is________________?.
A. less than 1
B. between 1 and 100
C. 160
D. 200.

39. In series-pipe problems_______________?.
A. the head loss is same through each pipe
B. the discharge is same through each pipe
C. a trial solution is not necessary
D. the discharge through each pipe is added to obtain total discharge.
Answer = the discharge is same through each pipe

40. A valve is suddenly closed in a water main in wl.ich the velocity is 1 m/sec and velocity of pressure wave is 981 m/ sec. The inertia head at the valve will be________________?.
A. 1 m
B. 10m
C. 100m
D. none of the above.

41. The speed of a pressure wave through a pipe depends upon________________?.
A. the length of pipe
B. the viscosity of fluid
C. the bulk modulus for the fluid
Answer = the bulk modulus for the fluid

42. Two pipe systems are said to be equivalent when_________________?.
A. head loss and discharge are same in two systems
B. length of pipe and discharge are same in two systems
C. friction factor and length are same in two systems
D. length and diameter are same in two systems.

43. The maximum thickness of boundary layer in a pipe of radius r is____________________?.
A. 0
B. r/2
C. r
D. 2r.

44. The losses are more in_________________?.
A. laminar flow
B. transition flow
C. turbulent flow
D. critical flow.

45. The velocity distribution for laminar flow through a circular tube__________________?.
A. is constant over the cross-section
B. varies linearly from zero at walls to maximum at centre
C. varies parabolically with maximum at the centre
D. none of the above.
Answer = varies parabolically with maximum at the centre

46. The discharge of a liquid of kinematic viscosity 4 cm2/sec through a 8 cm dia-meter pipe is 3200n cm7sec. The type of flow expected is__________________?.
A. laminar flow
B. transition flow
C. turbulent flow
D. not predictable from the given data.

47. The ratio of average velocity to maximum velocity for steady laminar flow in circular pipes is_______________?.
A. 1/2
B. 2/3
C. 3/2
D. 2.

48. For laminar flow in a pipe of circular cross-section, the Darcy's friction factor f is________________?.
A. directly proportional to Reynolds number and independent of pipe wall roughness
B. directly proportional to pipe wall roughness and independent of Reynolds number
C. inversely proportional to Reynolds number and indpendent of pipe wall roughness
D. inversely proportional to Reynolds number and directly proportional to pipe wall roughness.
Answer = inversely proportional to Reynolds number and indpendent of pipe wall roughness

49. For hydro-dynamically smooth boundary, the friction coefficient for turbulent flow is_______________?.
A. constant
B. dependent only on Reynolds number
C. a function of Reynolds number and relative roughness
D. dependent on relative roughness only.
Answer = dependent only on Reynolds number

50. With the same cross-sectional area and immersed in same turbulent flow, the largest total drag will be on__________________?.
A. a circular disc of plate held normal to flow
B. a sphere
C. a cylinder
D. a streamlined body.
Answer = a circular disc of plate held normal to flow

51. The distance y from pipe boundary, at which the point velocity is equal to average velocity for turbulent flow, is________________?.
A. 0.223 R
B. 0.423 R
C. 0.577 R
D. 0.707 R.

52. In case of an airfoil, the separation of flow occurs________________?.
A. at the extreme rear of body
B. at the extreme front of body
C. midway between rear and front of body
D. any where between rear and front of body depending upon Reynolds number.
Answer = at the extreme rear of body

53. The depth 'd' below the free surface at which the point velocity is equal to the average velocity of flow for a uniform laminar flow with a free surface, will be_________________?.
A. 0.423 D
B. 0.577 D
C. 0.223 D
D. 0.707 D.

54. If x is the distance from leading edge, then the boundary layer thickness in laminar flow varies as________________?.
A. x
B. x
C. x
D. x/7.

55. For a sphere of radius 15 cm moving with a uniform velocity of 2 m/sec through a liquid of specific gravity 0.9 and dynamic viscosity 0.8 poise, the Reynolds number will be_________________?.
A. 300
B. 337.5
C. 600
D. 675.

56. The discharge over a broad crested weir is maximum when the depth of flow is_______________?.
A. H/3
B. H/2
C. 2 H/5
D. 2 H/3.

57. Which of the following has highest coefficient of discharge ?.
A. sharp edged orifice
B. venturimeter
C. Borda's mouthpiece running full
D. CipoUetti weir.

58. The major loss of energy in long pipes is due to_______________?.
A. sudden enlargement
B. sudden contraction
D. friction.

59. Coefficient of velocity for Borda's mouth piece running full is________________?.
A. 0.611
B. 0.707
C. 0.855
D. 1.00.

60. The pressure at the summit of a syphon is_______________?.
A. equal to atmospheric
B. less than atmospheric
C. more than atmospheric
D. none of the above.

61. Due to each end contraction, the discharge of rectangular sharp crested weir is reduced by________________?.
A. 5%
B. 10%
C. 15%
D. 20%.

62. The theoretical value of coefficient of contraction of a sharp edged orifice is_______________?.
A. 0.611
B. 0.85
C. 0.98
D. 1.00.

63. The pitot tube is used to measure________________?.
A. velocity at stagnation point
B. stagnation pressure
C. static pressure
D. dynamic pressure.

64. Equation of continuity is based on the principle of conservation of_________________?.
A. mass
B. energy
C. momentum
D. none of the above.

65. In a forced vortex motion, the velocity of flow is________________?.
A. directly proportional to its radial distance from axis of rotation
B. inversely proportional to its radial distance from the axis of rotation
C. inversely proportional to the square of its radial distance from the axis of rotation
D. directly proportional to the square of its radial distance from the axis of rotation.
Answer = directly proportional to its radial distance from axis of rotation

66. Which of the following velocity potentials satisfies continuity equation ?.
A. x2y
B. x2-y2
C. cosx
D. x2 + y2.

67. If velocity is zero over l/3rd of a cross-section and is uniform over remaining 2/3rd of the cross-section, then the correction factor for kinetic energy is__________________?.
A. 4/3
B. 3/2
C. 9/4
D. 27/8.

68. When the velocity distribution is uniform over the cross-section, the correction factor for momentum is__________________?.
A. 0
B. 1
C. 4/3
D. 2.

69. Select the incorrect statement?.
A. The pressure intensity at vena contracta is atmospheric
B. Contraction is least at vena contracta
C. Stream lines are parallel throughout the jet at vena contracta
D. Coefficient of contraction is always less than one.
Answer = Stream lines are parallel throughout the jet at vena contracta

70. Which of the following is an incorrect statement ?.
A. Coefficient of contraction of a venturimeter is unity
B. Flow nozzle is cheaper than venturimeter but has higher energy loss
C. Discharge is independent of orientation of venturimeter whether it is horizontal, vertical or inclined
D. None of the above statement is correct..
Answer = None of the above statement is correct.

71. A right circular cylinder open at the top is filled with liquid and rotated about its vertical axis at such a speed that half the liquid spills out, then the pressure intensity at the center of bottom is___________________?.
A. zero
B. one-fourth its value when cylinder was full
C. one-half its value when cylinder was full
D. cannot be predicted from the given data.

72. When a liquid rotates at a constant angular velocity about a vertical axis as a rigid body, the pressure intensity varies________________?.
B. as the square of the radial distance
C. inversely as the square of the radial distance
D. inversely as the radial distance.

73. The point in the immersed body through which the resultant pressure of the liquid may be taken to act is known as__________________?.
A. center of gravity
B. center of buoyancy
C. center of pressure
D. metacentre.

74. If the weight of a body immersed in a fluid exceeds the buoyant force, then the body will________________?.
A. rise until its weight equals the buoyant force
B. tend to move downward and it may finally sink
C. float
D. none of the above.
Answer = tend to move downward and it may finally sink

75. A floating body is said to be in a state of stable equilibrium_________________?.
A. when its metacentric height is zero
B. when the metacentre is above the centre of gravity
C. when the metacentre is below the centre of gravity
D. only when its centre of gravity is below its centre of buoyancy.
Answer = when the metacentre is above the centre of gravity

76. A vertical rectangular plane surface is submerged in water such that its top and bottom surfaces are 1.5 m and 6.0 m res-pectively below the free surface. The position of center of pressure below the free surface will be at a distance of________________?.
A. 3.75 m
B. 4.0 m
C. 4.2m
D. 4.5m.

77. The position of center of pressure on a plane surface immersed vertically in a static mass of fluid is______________?.
A. at the centroid of the submerged area
B. always above the centroid of the area
C. always below the centroid of the area
D. none of the above.
Answer = always below the centroid of the area

78. Newton's law of viscosity relates________________?.
A. intensity of pressure and rate of angular deformation
B. shear stress and rate of angular deformation
C. shear stress, viscosity and temperature
D. viscosity and rate of angular deformation.
Answer = shear stress and rate of angular deformation

79. The viscosity of a gas_______________?.
A. decreases with increase in temperature
B. increases with increase in temperature
C. is independent of temperature
D. is independent of pressure for very high pressure intensities.
Answer = increases with increase in temperature

80. If the dynamic viscosity of a fluid is 0.5 poise and specific gravity is 0.5, then the kinematic viscosity of that fluid in stokes is__________________?.
A. 0.25
B. 0.50
C. 1.0
D. none of the above.

81. An ideal fluid is_______________?.
A. one which obeys Newton's law of viscosity
B. frictionless and incompressible
C. very viscous
D. frictionless and compressible.

82. Pascal-second is the unit of______________?.
A. pressure
B. kinematic viscosity
C. dynamic viscosity
D. surface tension.

83. The unit of kinematic viscosity is_______________?.
A. gm/cm-sec2
B. dyne-sec/cm2
C. gm/cm2-sec
D. cm2/sec.

84. Select the correct statement?.
A. The absolute roughness of a pipe de-creases with time
B. A pipe becomes smooth after using for long time
C. The friction factor decreases with time
D. The absolute roughness increases with time.
Answer = The absolute roughness increases with time

85. A pitot tube is used to measure.
A. pressure.
B. difference in pressure.
C. velocity of flow.
D. none of these..

86. The thickness of a sharp crested weir is kept less than.
A. one-third of the height of water on the sill.
B. one-half of the height of water on the sill.
C. one-fourth of the height of water on the sill.
D. two-third of the height of water on the sill.
Answer = one-half of the height of water on the sill

87. The property of steam function ψ is :.
A. ψ is constant everwhere on any stream line.
B. the flow around any path in the fluid is zero for continuous flow.
C. the rate of change of ψ with distance in an arbitrary direction, is proportional to the component of velocity normal to that direction.
D. all the above..

88. The maximum vacuum created at the summit of a syphon is.
A. 2.7 m of water.
B. 7.4 m of water.
C. 5.5 m of water.
D. none..
Answer = 7.4 m of water

89. If the atmospheric pressure on the surface of an oil tank (sp. gr. 0.8) is 0.1 kg/cm2, the pressure at a depth of 2.5 m, is.
A. 1 metre of water.
B. 2 metres of water.
C. 3 metres of water.
D. 3.5 metres of water.
Answer = 3 metres of water

90. The total pressure force on a plane area is equal to the area multiplied by the intensity of pressure at its centroid, if.
A. area is horizontal.
B. area is vertical.
C. area is inclined.
D. all the above..

91. If the volume of a liquid weighing 3000 kg is 4 cubic metres, 0.75 is its.
A. specific weight.
B. specific mass.
C. specific gravity.
D. none of these..

92. Bernoulli's equation assumes that.
A. fluid is non-viscous.
B. fluid is homogeneous.
D. all the above..

93. A syphon is used.
A. to connect water reservoirs at different levels intervened by a hill.
B. to supply water to a town from higher level to lower level.
C. to fill up a tank with water at higher level from a lower level.
D. none of these..
Answer = to connect water reservoirs at different levels intervened by a hill

94. Most economical section of a circular channel for maximum discharge.
A. depth of water = 0.95 diameter of circular section.
B. hydraulic mean depth = 0.286 diameter of circular section.
C. wetted perimeter = 2.6 diameter of circular section.
D. all the above..

95. The ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity of viscous fluid through a circular pipe is.
A. 0.5.
B. 0.75.
C. 1.25.
D. 2.0.

96. The shear stress distribution in viscous fluid through a circular pipe is :.
A. maximum at the centre.
B. maximum at the inside of surface.
C. same throughout the section.
D. none of these..
Answer = same throughout the section

97. The side slope of Cipolletti weir is generally kept.
A. 1 to 4.
B. 1 to 3.
C. 1 to 2.
D. 31-Dec-1899.

98. The momentum correction factor (β) for the viscous flow through a circular pipe is.
A. 1.25.
B. 1.33.
C. 1.5.
D. 1.66.

99. A piezometer opening in pipes measures.
B. static pressure.
C. total pressure.
D. negative static pressure..

100. An independent mass of a fluid does not posses.
A. elevation energy.
B. kinetic energy.
C. pressure energy.
D. none of these..

101. A short tube mouthpiece will not run full at its outlet if the head under which the orifice works, is.
A. less than 12.2 m of the water.
B. more than 12.2 m of the water.
C. equal of 12.2 m of water.
D. none of these..
Answer = more than 12.2 m of the water

102. Hydrostatic pressure on a dam depends upon its.
A. length.
B. depth.
C. shape.
D. both (b) and (c)..
Answer = both (b) and (c).

103. Maximum efficiency of transmission of power through a pipe, is.
A. 0.25.
B. 0.333.
C. 0.5.
D. 66.67%..

104. An ideal flow of a liquid obeys.
A. Continuity equation.
B. Newton's law of viscosity.
C. Newton's second law of motion.
D. dynamic viscosity law,.

105. Reynold number is the ratio of initial force and.
A. viscosity.
B. elasticity.
C. gravitational force.
D. surface tension..

106. When a body is totally or partially immersed in a fluid, it is buoyed up by a force equal to.
A. weight of the body.
B. weight of the fluid displaced by the body.
C. weight of the body and fluild displaced by the body.
D. difference of weights of the fluid displaced and that of the body.
Answer = weight of the fluid displaced by the body

107. If the total head of the nozzle of a pipe is 37.5 m and discharge is 1 cumec, the power generated is.
A. 400 H.P..
B. 450 H.P..
C. 500 H.P..
D. 550 H.P..

108. The phenomenon occuring in an open channel when a rapidly flowing stream abruptly changes to a slowly flowing stream causing a distinct rise of liquid surface, is.
A. water hammer.
B. hydraulic jump.
C. critical discharge.
D. none of these..

109. The horizontal component of the force on a curved surface is equal to.
A. weight of liquid vertically below the curved surface.
B. force on a vetical projection of the curved surface.
C. product of pressure at its centroid and the area.
D. weight of liquid retained by the curved area..
Answer = force on a vetical projection of the curved surface

110. The radius of gyration of the water line of a floating ship is 4 m and its metacentric height is 72.5 cm. The period of oscillation of the ship, is.
A. π.
B. 2π.
C. 3π.
D. 4π.

111. Differential manometers are used to measure.
A. pressure in water channels, pipes, etc..
B. difference in pressure at two points.
C. atmospheric pressure.
D. very low pressure..
Answer = difference in pressure at two points

112. Liquids.
A. cannot be compressed.
B. do not occupy definite shape.
C. are not affected by change in pressure and temperature.
D. none of these..
Answer = do not occupy definite shape

113. The ratio of the inertia and gravitational force acting in any flow, ignoring other forces, is called.
A. Euler number.
B. Frode number.
C. Reynold number.
D. Weber number..

114. A rectangular channel 6 m wide and 3 m deep and having a bed slope as 1 in 2000 is running full. If Chezy's constant C = 54.8, pick up the correct specification of the channel from the following :.
A. hydraulic mean depth = 1.5 m.
B. Velocity of flow = 1.5 m/sec.
C. Rate of flow = 27 m3/sec.
D. All the above..

115. Non-over flow double curvature concrete arch, is provided in.
A. Bhakra dam.
B. Hirakund dam.
C. Nagarjuna Sagar dam.
D. Idukki dam..

116. For the most economical trapezoidal open channel,.
A. half of the top width must be equal to one of the sloping sides.
B. the hydraulic mean depth must be equal to half the depth of flow.
C. the semicircle drawn with top width as diameter must touch the three sides of the channel.
D. All of these..

117. Hydraulic ram is a device.
A. for lifting water without an electric motor.
B. for accelerating water flow.
D. none of these..
Answer = for lifting water without an electric motor

118. Gauge pressure is.
A. absolute pressure - atmospheric pressure.
B. absolute pressure + atmospheric pressure.
C. atmospheric pressure - absolute pressure.
D. none of these..
Answer = absolute pressure - atmospheric pressure

119. If jet of water coming out from a nozzle with a velocity 9.81 m/s, the angle of elevation being 30°, the time to reach the highest point is.
A. 0.25 s.
B. 0.50 s.
C. 1.0 s.
D. 1.5 s..

120. The discharge through a 100 mm diameter external mouth piece fitted to the side of a large vessel is 0.05948 m3/s. The head over the mouth piece is.
A. 2 m.
B. 2.5 m.
C. 3.0 m.
D. 4.0 m..

121. If cohesion between the molecules of a fluid is more than adhesion between the fluid and glass, the free level of fluid in a dipped glass tube will be.
A. higher than the surface of liquid.
B. same as the surface of liquid.
C. lower than the surface of liquid.
D. none of these..
Answer = lower than the surface of liquid

122. The continuity equation.
A. expresses the relationship between work and energy.
B. relates the momentum per unit volume between two points on a stream line.
C. relates mass rate of flow along a stream line.
D. requires that Newton's second law of motion be satisfied at every point in fluid..
Answer = relates mass rate of flow along a stream line

123. Water displaced by a floating wooden block of density 0.75, 5 m long, 2 m wide and 3 m high, is.
A. 17.5 m3.
B. 20.0 m3.
C. 22.5 m3.
D. 25 km3..

124. In pipe lines, a surge tank is provided.
A. to relieve the pressure due to water hammer.
C. to overflow the pipe line when suddenly closed.
D. to remove the frictional loss in pipe..
Answer = to relieve the pressure due to water hammer

125. Total head of a liquid particle in motion is the sum of.

126. The velocity distribution of viscous fluid through a circular/pipe is :.
A. hyperbolic.
B. circular.
C. parabolic.
D. elliptical..

127. Mercury is generally used in barometers because.
A. its vaour pressure is practically zero.
B. the height of the barometer will be less.
C. it is a best liquid.
D. both (a) and (b) above.
Answer = both (a) and (b) above

128. Flow in pipes is laminar if Reynold number is.
A. less than 2100.
B. more than 3000.
C. between 2100 and 3000.
D. none of these..

129. In flow, the liquid particles may possess.
A. potential energy.
B. kinetic energy.
C. pressure energy.
D. all the above..

130. Euler's equation for the motion of liquids assumes that.
A. fluid is viscous.
B. fluid is homogeneous and incompressible.
C. velocity of flow is non-uniform over the section.
D. flow is unsteady along the stream line..
Answer = fluid is homogeneous and incompressible

131. The height of water level in a tank above the centre of a circular hole 2.5 cm in diameter is 50 m. The velocity of water flowing through the hole, is.
A. 31.1 m/sec.
B. 31.2 m/sec.
C. 31.3 m/sec.
D. 31.4 m/sec..

132. A steady uniform flow is through.
A. a long pipe at decreasing rate.
B. a long pipe at constant rate.
C. an expanding tube at constant rate.
D. an expanding tube at increasing rate.
Answer = a long pipe at constant rate

133. Cavitation is caused by.
A. Low pressure.
B. High pressure.
C. Low velocity.
D. High velocity.

134. Mach number is the ratio of inertia force to.
A. viscosity.
B. surface tension.
C. gravitational force.
D. elasticity..

135. The main assumption of Bernoulli's equation is :.
A. The velocity of energy of liquid particle, across any cross-section of a pipe is uniform.
B. No external force except the gravity acts on the liquid.
C. There is no loss of energy of the liquid while flowing.
D. All the above..

136. For critical depth of flow of water in open channels, fc the specific energy must be :.
A. minimum.
B. maximum.
C. average of maximum and minimum.
D. None of these..

137. If the forces are due to inertia and gravity, and frictional resistance plays only a minor role, the design of the channels is made by comparing.
A. Reynold number.
B. Froude number.
C. Weber number.
D. Mach number..

138. The discharge over a Cipolletti weir of length 2.185 m when the head over the weir is 1 m, is.
A. 2.0 m3.
B. 2.5 m3.
C. 3.0 m3.
D. 4.0 m3..

139. The velocity of the fluid particle at the centre of the pipe section, is.
A. minimum.
B. maximum.
C. equal throughout.
D. none of these..

140. Due to decrease of diameter of the droplet, inside pressure intensity.
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. remains unaffected.
D. None of these..

141. In order to avoid capillary correction, the minimum diameter of a manometer used for measuring pressure, should be.
A. 2 mm.
B. 4 mm.
C. 6 mm.
D. 8 mm.

142. When water flows over a rectangular suppressed weir, the negative pressure created beneath the nappe.
A. increases the discharge.
B. decreases the discharge.
C. does not effect the discharge.
D. none of these..

143. Barometres are used to measure.
A. pressure in water channels, pipes etc..
B. difference in pressure at two points.
C. atmospheric pressure.
D. very low pressure.

144. For most economical rectangular section of a channel, the depth is kept.
A. one-fourth of the width.
B. three times the hydraulic radius.
C. half the width.
D. hydraulic mean depth.

145. In a centrifugual pump casing, the flow of water leaving the impeller, is.
A. rectilinear flow.
C. free vortex motion.
D. forced vertex..

146. In fluids, steady flow occurs when.
A. conditions of flow change steadily with time.
B. conditions of flow do not change with time at a point.
C. conditions of flow remain the same at adjacent point.
D. velocity vector remains constant at a point..
Answer = conditions of flow do not change with time at a point

147. From a nozzle exposed to atmosphere, the liquid jet traverses.
A. a straight line.
B. a circular path.
C. an elliptical path.
D. a parabolic path..

148. To avoid the force of surface tension in an inclined manometer, the minimum angle of inclination is.
A. 2°.
B. 3°.
C. 4°.
D. 5°.

149. An orifice is taken as large if.
A. (H2 - H1) > H.
B. (H2 - H1) > H/4.
C. (H2 - H1) > H/2.
D. (H2 - H1) > H/3.
Answer = (H2 - H1) > H/3

150. A closed cylindrical vessel of 100 cm diameter and 200 cm high is completely filled with a liquid (sp. weight 1600 kg/m3) when rotated about its vertical axis at 100 r.p.m. The total pressure on its lid, is.
A. 459 kg.
B. 549 kg.
C. 945 kg.
D. 954 kg.

151. For exerting a pressure of 4.8 kg/cm2, the depth of oil (specific gravity 0.8), should be.
A. 40 cm.
B. 41 cm.
C. 56 cm.
D. 60 cm.

152. A cylindrical vessel 40 cm high is revolved about its vertical axis so that the water touches the bottom when it just spills out. If the radius of the cylinder is 5 cm, the angular velocity of rotation, is.

153. For the flow of liquid from an open ended tube (or nozzle) leading to the formation of spray of liquid drops, the number generally applied, is.
A. Froude number.
B. Weber number.
C. Reynold number.
D. Mach number..

154. To avoid vapourisation, pipe lines are laid over the ridge so that these are above the hydraulic gradient line, not more than.
A. 2.4 m.
B. 6.4 m.
C. 10.0 m.
D. 5.0 m..

155. A jet projected at an angle of 45θ, 40 m from the foot of a vertical column, just reaches the top of the column. The height of the column is.
A. 15 m.
B. 20 m.
C. 30 m.
D. 40 m.

156. If Cv, Cc, Cd and Cr are the hydraulic coefficients of an orifice, then.
A. Cd = CcCv.
B. Cr = 1 + Cv2/Cd.
C. Cv = Cc + Cd.
D. Cc = Cv/Cd.

157. Atmospheric pressure varies with.
A. altitude.
B. temperature.
C. weather conditions.
D. all of the above..
Answer = all of the above.

158. The magnitude of water hammer in a pipe depends upon.
A. speed at which value is closed.
B. length of the pipe line.
C. elastic properties of the pipe material.
D. all the above..

159. If velocities of fluid particles vary from point to point in magnitude and direction, as well as from instant to instant, the flow is said to be.
A. laminar.
B. turbulent flow.
C. uniform flow.
D. non-uniform flow..

160. The rise of the liquid along the walls of a revolving cylinder above the initial level, is.
A. greater than the depression of the liquid at the axis of rotation.
B. lesser than the depression of the liquid at the axis of rotation.
C. the same as the depression of the liquid at the axis of rotation.
D. none of these..
Answer = the same as the depression of the liquid at the axis of rotation

161. Fluids change the volume under external presssure due to.
A. plasticity.
B. viscosity.
C. compressibility.
D. none of these..

162. Discharge over an ogee weir remains the same as that of.
A. sharp crested weir.
B. triangular weir.
C. cippoletti weir.
D. drowned weir..

163. When no air is left below the nappe and water stream adheres to the down stream face of the weir, it is known as.
A. free nappe.
B. depressed nappe.
C. clinging nappe.
D. none of these..

164. The best side slope for most economical trapezoidal section, is.
A. 30°.
B. 45°.
C. 60°.
D. None of these..

165. The following is not a laminar flow.
A. Flow of oil in measuring instruments.
B. Flow in beds in ground water.
C. Rise of water in plants through roots.
D. Flow in water pipe lines..
Answer = Flow in water pipe lines.

166. Which one of the following statements is true ?.
A. The value of kinetic energy correction factor for turbulent flow lies between 1.03 to 1.06.
B. The value of kinetic energy correction factor for laminar flow is 2.
C. The practical value of kinetic energy correction factor for turbulent flow is unity.
D. all the above..

167. Uniform flow is said to occur when.
A. size and shape of the cross-section in a particular length remain constant.
B. size and shape of the cross-section change along a length.
C. frictional loss in the particular length of the channel will the more than the drop in its elevation.
D. frictional loss in the particular length of the channel, will be less than the drop in elevation..
Answer = size and shape of the cross-section in a particular length remain constant

168. Molecules of fluids get attracted due to.
A. capillarity action.
B. surface tension.
D. cohesion.

169. Cappoletti weir is a.
A. rectangular weir whose length is kept 3 times the height of the water above sill.
B. triangular weir whose notch angle is 90°.
C. trapezoidal weir, whose sides slope 1 horizontal to 2 verticals.
D. a combination of rectangular and triangular weirs..
Answer = trapezoidal weir, whose sides slope 1 horizontal to 2 verticals

170. On an inclined plane, centre of pressure is located.
A. at the centroid.
B. above the centroid.
C. below the centroid.
D. anywhere..

171. Atmospheric pressure is equal to water column head of.
A. 9.81 m.
B. 5.0 m.
C. 10.30 m.
D. 7.5 m..

172. Shear stress is directly proportional to.
A. the velocity.
B. the shear strain.
C. the viscosity.
D. the velocity..

173. To avoid an interruption in the flow of a syphon, an air vessel is provided.
A. at the inlet.
B. at the outlet.
C. at the summit.
D. at any point between intet and outlet..

174. Pick up the correct statement from the following :.
A. Total energy gradient is the graphical representation of the total head at any section of a pipe line.
B. Vertical distance between the total energy line and hydraulic grade line is equal to the velocity head.
C. Vertical distance between the total energy line and total energy gradient represents loss of head.
D. all the above..

175. A fluid particle may possess the displacement of.
A. translation.
B. rotation.
C. distortion.
D. all the above..

176. Pick up the correct statement from the following :.
A. When the length of the tube is equal to diameter of the internal mouth piece, the jet of liquid comes out without touching the sides of the tube.
B. When the length of the tube is three times the diameter of the internal mouth piece, the jet diameter is equal to diameter of the tube..
C. both (a) and (b).
D. Neither (a) nor (b)..
Answer = both (a) and (b)

177. Piezometers are used to measure.
A. pressure in water channels, pipes etc..
B. difference in pressure at two points.
C. atmospheric pressure.
D. very low pressure..

178. Most economical section of a triangular channel, is.
A. equilateral triangle.
B. right angled triangle.
C. isosceles triangle with 45° vertex angle.
D. right angled triangle with equal sides..
Answer = right angled triangle with equal sides.

179. In an open tube, free surface of mercury remains.
A. horizontal.
B. curved upwards.
C. curved downwards.
D. none of these..

180. Manometers are used to measure.
A. pressure in water channels, pipes etc..
B. difference in pressure at two points.
C. atmospheric pressure.
D. very low pressure..
Answer = pressure in water channels, pipes etc.

181. For maximum horse power of a nozzle, the head supplied must be equal to.
A. head loss in the pipe due to friction.
B. twice the head loss in the pipe due to friction.
C. thrice the head loss in the pipe due to friction.
D. four times the head loss in the pipe due to friction..
Answer = thrice the head loss in the pipe due to friction

182. The ratio of frictional factor and coefficient of friction used in general equation for a head loss in a pipe, is.
A. 1.0.
B. 2.0.
C. 3.0.
D. 4.0.

183. Flow in pipes is turbulent if Reynold number is.
A. less than 2100.
B. more than 3000.
C. between 2100 and 3000.
D. none of these..

184. Back water curve is caused if.
A. friction head loss is more than the bed slope.
B. pressure is due to weir in the channel.
C. there is an increase in width of the channel.
D. none of these..
Answer = pressure is due to weir in the channel

185. Power transmitted through a pipe is maximum when friction head loss, is.
A. one-half of the total head supplied.
B. one-third of the total head supplied.
C. one-fouth of the total head supplied.
D. equal to the total head supplied..

186. The specific weight of water is 1000 kg/m3.
A. at normal pressure of 760 mm.
B. at 4°C temperature.
C. at mean sea level.
D. all the above..

187. Specific weight of liquid.
A. remains constant at every place.
B. does not remain constant at every place.
C. varies from place to place on the earth.
D. does not vary on any other planet..
Answer = does not vary on any other planet.

188. Manning's formula is used for.
A. flow in open channels.
B. head loss due to friction in open channels.
C. head loss due to friction in pipes flowing full.
D. flow in pipes..

189. A non-uniform steady flow is through.
A. a long tube at a decreasing rate.
B. an expanding tube at constant rate.
C. an expanding tube at increasing rate.
D. a long pipe at increasing rate..
Answer = an expanding tube at constant rate

190. An ideal fluid is.
A. incompressible.
B. compressible.
C. compressible and non-viscous.
D. slightly affected by surface torque..

191. Equation of continuity of flow is based on the principle of conservation of.
A. mass.
B. momentum.
C. force.
D. none of these..

192. Pick up the correct statement from the following :.
A. Discharge over a triangular notch is proportional to H5/2.
B. Discharge over a rectangular notch is proportional to H3/2.
C. Both (a) and (b).
D. Neither (a) nor (b)..
Answer = Both (a) and (b)

193. The flow in open channel is said to be subcritical if the Froude number is.
A. less than 1.0.
B. equal to 1.0.
C. greater than 1.0.
D. none..

194. In C.G.S. system the unit of visocity is.
A. dyne.
B. joule.
C. poise.
D. Newton.

195. The notch angle for maximum discharge over a triangular notch, is.
A. 30°.
B. 60°.
C. 90°.
D. 120°.

196. In an inclined pipe, the pressure difference at its two ends is due to.
A. sudden head drop at inlet.
D. all the above..

197. Weber number is the ratio of inertia force to.
A. surface tension.
B. gravitational force.
C. elasticity.
D. viscosity..

198. Though angle of deviation of liquid is more in internal mouth piece, the contraction of the jet, is.
A. more in the internal mouth piece.
B. less in the internal mouth piece.
C. equal to external mouth piece.
D. none of these..
Answer = more in the internal mouth piece

199. The width of a weir with end contraction, is.
A. equal to the width of the channel.
B. less than the width of the channel.
C. half the width of the channel.
D. none of these..
Answer = less than the width of the channel

200. An open container filled with water is moved vertically upward with a uniform linear acceleration. The pressure at its bottom will be.
A. greater than static pressure.
B. equal to static pressure.
C. lesser than static pressure.
D. none of these..
Answer = greater than static pressure

201. The gases are considered incompressible if Match number is.
A. equal to 1.0.
B. equal to 1.5.
C. is more than 0.5.
D. less than 0.2.

202. The flow in which each liquid particle has a definite path and the paths of adjacent particles do not cross each other, is called.
A. stream line flow.
B. uniform flow.
D. turbulent flow..

203. The dimensionless parameter not applicable to flowing liquids, is.
A. Reynold number.
B. Weber number.
C. Pressure coefficient.
D. Kinematic viscosity.

204. The pressure rise due to water hammer depends upon.
A. the velocity of flow of water in the pipe.
B. the length of pipe.
C. time taken to close the valve.
D. All of above..

205. In a two dimensional flow if the components of the velocity are u = ax ; v = by, the point where no motion occurs, is known as.
A. critical point.
B. neutral point.
C. stagnation point.
D. stationary point.

206. Most economical section of a circular channel for maximum velocity, is if,.
A. depth of water = 0.810 diameter.
B. hydraulic mean depth = 0.304 diameter.
C. wetted perimeter = 2.245 diameters.
D. all the above..

207. For a most economical rectangular channel, the width of the channel must be.
A. equal to depth of flow.
B. twice the depth of flow.
C. half the depth of flow.
D. None of these..
Answer = twice the depth of flow

208. The hydrostatic force acts through.
A. centre of pressure.
B. centre of top edge.
C. centre of bottom edge.
D. metacentre..

209. In an inclined position, a venturimeter records.
D. none of these..

210. In a short cylindercial external mouthpiece, the venacontracta occurs at a distance from the outlet of orifice equal to.
A. diameter of the orifice.
B. one-fourth the diameter of the orifice.
C. one-third the diameter of the orifice.
D. two-third the diameter of the orifice.
Answer = one-fourth the diameter of the orifice

211. If the pressure at the inlet of a pipe is 90 kg/cm2 and pressure drop over the pipe line is 10 kg/cm2, the efficiency of transmission, is.
A. 0.666.
B. 0.777.
C. 0.555.
D. 88.8%..

212. Pick up the incorrect statement from to following regarding triangular notch :.
A. For measuring low discharge, it gives more accurate result.
B. Only one reading (i.e. H) is required for computation of discharge.
C. Ventilation is necessary.
D. None of these..

213. The flow in a channel is said to be non-uniform, if.
A. free water surface of an open channel is not parallel to the bed of channel.
B. head needed to overcome frictional reistance is less than the drop in elevation of channel bed.
C. head needed to overcome frictional resistance is more than the drop in elevation of channel bed.
D. all the above..

214. Flow net can be drawn only if the flow is.
A. turbulent.
B. rotational.
C. distortion.
D. none of these..

215. The flow in open channel is laminar if the Reynold number is.
A. less than 500.
B. more than 500.
C. 1000.0.
D. none of these..

216. Centre of buoyancy is.
A. centroid of the floating body.
B. centroid of the fluid displaced.
C. centre of pressure of the displaced liquid.
D. none of these..
Answer = centroid of the fluid displaced

217. The intensity of pressure due to sudden closure of a valve of a pipe in which water flows with velocity v, is directly proportional to :.
A. square root of the bulk modulus of elasticity of water.
B. bulk modulus of elasticity of water.
C. specific weight of water.
D. none of these..
Answer = square root of the bulk modulus of elasticity of water

218. Total energy line is.
D. All the above..

219. For critical flow, the Froude number is :.
A. 1.0.
B. less than 1.0.
C. more than 1.0.
D. 2.0.

220. A stepped notch is a combination of.
A. rectangular notches of different sizes.
B. triangular notches of different sizes.
C. rectangular and triangular notches.
D. all the above..
Answer = rectangular notches of different sizes

221. The centre of pressure of a vertical plane immersed in a liquid is at.
A. centre of higher edge.
B. centre of lower edge.
C. centroid of the area.
D. none of these..

222. A body of dimensions 1.5 m x 1.0 m x 2 m weighs 3000 kg in water. Its specific gravity is.
A. 0.8.
B. 0.9.
C. 1.0.
D. 1.1.

223. An orifice is called a large orifice if water head, is.
A. twice the diameter of the orifice.
B. thrice the diameter of the orifice.
C. four times the diameter of the orifice.
D. five times the diameter of the orifice..
Answer = five times the diameter of the orifice.

224. When a liquid rotates at constant angular velocity about a vertical axis of a rigid body, the pressure.
A. increases linearly to its radial distance.
B. varies inversely as the altitude along any vertical line.
C. varies as the square of the radial distance.
D. decreases as the square of the radial distance.

225. For the two dimensional flow, the stream function is given by ψ = 2xy. The velocity at a point (3, 4) is.
A. 6 m/sec.
B. 8 m/sec.
C. 10 m/sec.
D. 12 m/sec.

226. A floating body attains stable equilibrium if its metacentre is.
A. at the centroid.
B. above the centroid.
C. below the centroid.
D. anywhere..

227. The unit of the viscosity is.
A. kg sec/m2.
B. Newton sec per m2.
C. Newton-sec2/m3.
D. m2 per sec..
Answer = Newton sec per m2

228. An ideal fluid.
A. is frictionless and incompressible.
B. obeys Newton's law of velocity.
C. is similar to gas.
D. is very viscous..
Answer = is frictionless and incompressible

229. In C.G.S. system the units of kinematic viscosity, is.
A. stoke.
B. poise.
C. Newton.
D. none of these..

230. A triangular notch is preferred to a rectangular notch because.
A. only one reading is required.
B. its formula is simple to remember.
C. it gives more accurate results for low discharge.
D. all the above..

231. In case of laminar flow through a circular pipe,.
A. momentum correction factor is 1.33.
B. energy correction factor is 2.00.
C. both (a) and (b).
D. Neither (a) nor (b)..
Answer = both (a) and (b)

232. The pressure less than atmospheric , pressure, is known.
A. suction pressure.
B. vacuum pressure.
C. negative gauge pressure.
D. all the above..

233. A rise or fall of liquid in a glass tube of a very small diameter when dipped is.
A. directly proportional to the force per unit length of periphery.
B. direcly proportional to the sine of the angle of contact.
C. directly proportional to the specific weight of liquid.
D. inversely proportional to the diameter of the glass tube..
Answer = directly proportional to the specific weight of liquid

234. To measure very low pressure, we use.
A. barometers.
B. piezometers.
C. manometers.
D. differential manometers..

235. A spherical load 900 kg is rolled through 9.8 m across the deck of a ship weighing 10, 000 kg. If the metacentric height of the ship is 5 metres, the angle of heel, is.
A. 10° 5'.
B. 10° 10'.
C. 10° 15'.
D. 10° 20'.

236. Pick up the correct statement from the following :.
A. In incompressible flow the density of a fluid remains constant.
B. In compressible flow, the density of a fluid changes from point to point.
C. In uniform flow, the velocity of a fluid does not change with respect to length of flow direction.
D. All the above..

237. Pick up the incorrect statement from the following :.
A. In radial flow, fluid flows such that pressure and velocity at any point change with respect to its distance from the central axis.
B. In radial flow, velocity of flow is in a radial direction.
C. In radial flow, flow may take place radially inward to or outward from the centre.
D. In radial flow, flow is one dimensional with stream lines parallel..
Answer = In radial flow, flow is one dimensional with stream lines parallel.

238. Chezy's formula is used to determine.
A. head loss due to friction in pipe.
B. velocity of flow in pipe.
C. velocity of flow in open channels.
D. none of these..
Answer = velocity of flow in open channels

239. The metacentric height of a body equals the distance between.
A. the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy.
B. the metacentre and centre of gravity.
C. the centre of buoyancy and metacentre.
D. none of these..
Answer = the metacentre and centre of gravity

240. Discharge through a totally submerged orifice, is directly proportional to.
A. difference in elevation of water surfaces.
B. square root of the difference in elevation of water surface.
C. square root of the opening.
D. reciprocal of the area of the opening.
Answer = square root of the difference in elevation of water surface

241. Frictional loss of head includes the loss of energy due to.
A. viscosity.
B. turbulence.
C. both (a) and (b).
D. none of these..

242. The length of hydraulic jump is roughly.
A. 2 to 3 times its height.
B. 3 to 5 times its height.
C. 5 to 7 times its height.
D. None of these..
Answer = 5 to 7 times its height

243. To ensure that water does not rise more than 100 cm above the crest, for a discharge of 5.00 m3/sec, the length of water will be.
A. 2.48 m.
B. 2.49 m.
C. 2.50 m.
D. 2.51 m..

244. For a most economical trapezoidal open channel, the half of the top width must be equal to.
A. the bed width.
B. one sloping side.
C. the depth of flow.
D. None of these..

245. Pick up the correct statement regarding convergent divergent mouth piece from the following :.
A. It converges upto Venacontracta and then diverges.
B. In this mouth piece there is no loss of energy due to sudden enlargement.
C. The coefficient of discharge is unity.
D. All the above..

246. The value of kinetic energy correction factor (a) for a laminar flow through a circular pipe, is.
A. 0.5.
B. 1.0.
C. l.5.
D. 2.0.

247. One metric slug is equal to.
A. 1 kg wt.
B. 9.81 kg wt.
C. 9.81 kg mass.
D. 0.98 kg wt..

248. Falling drops of water become spheres due to.
B. cohesion.
C. surface tension.
D. viscosity..

249. The most efficient channel section, is.
A. semi-circular.
B. rectangular.
C. triangular.
D. half hexagon in the form of trapezoid..
Answer = half hexagon in the form of trapezoid.

250. With a clinging nappe of a weir, the excess discharge, is.
A. 6% to 7%.
B. 8% to 10%.
C. 18% to 20%.
D. 25% to 30%.

251. For steady flow in open channels, which one of the following does not change :.
A. depth of flow.
B. velocity of flow.
C. rate of flow.
D. All of these..

252. Equation of continuity of fluids is applicable only if.
B. flow is compressive.
C. flow is one dimensional.
D. all the above..

253. The flow in open channel is said to be critical if the Froude number is :.
A. less than 1.0.
B. equal to 1.0.
C. greater than 1.0.
D. None of these..

254. An orifice is an opening in a vessel with.
A. closed perimeter of regular shape through which water flows.
B. the water level of the liquid on the up stream side is below the top of the orifice.
C. partially full flow.
D. prolonged sides having length of 2 to 3 diameters of the opening in thick wall..
Answer = closed perimeter of regular shape through which water flows

255. The imaginary line drawn such that the tangents at its all points indicate the direction of the velocity of the fluid particles at each point, is called.
A. path line.
B. stream line.
C. potential line.
D. streak line..

256. A nozzle is fitted at the end of a pipe whose length is 320 m and diameter is 10 cm. If the value of f = 0.01, the diameter of the nozzle for the maximum transmission of power through the nozzle is.
A. 2.4 cm.
B. 2.5 cm.
C. 2.6 cm.
D. 2.7 cm..

257. When the whole fluid mass rotates either due to fluid pressure or gravity or rotation previously imparted, the motion is known as.
A. free vortex.
B. forced vortex.
C. non-potential vortex.
D. rotational vortex..

258. For solving the problems is hydraulic engineering, the velocity used is.
A. velocity at the centre of pipe section.
B. average velocity of flow over a section.
C. mean of the velocities at the centre and that along the pipe surface.
D. none of these..
Answer = average velocity of flow over a section

259. The shape of fire hose nozzle is generally kept.
A. divergent.
B. convergent.
C. convergent divergent.
D. cylindrical..

260. The line joining the points to which the liquid rises in vertical piezometer tubes fitted at different cross-sections of a conduit, is known as.
B. piezometric line.
D. all the above..

261. Practical fluids possess.
A. viscosity.
B. surface tension.
C. compressibility.
D. all the above..

262. The depth of the centre of pressure on a vertical rectangular gate (4 m wide, 3 m high) with water upto top surface, is.
A. 1.0 m.
B. 1.5 m.
C. 2.0 m.
D. 2.5 m..

263. The differential equation dp/ρ + gdz + vdv = 0 for a fluid motion is suggested by.
A. Bernoulli.
B. Cauchy-Riemann.
C. Laplace.
D. Leonard Euler..

264. An open container filled with water is moved vertically downward with a uniform linear acceleration. The pressure at its bottom will be.
A. greater than static pressure.
B. equal to static pressure.
C. lesser than static pressure.
D. none of these..
Answer = lesser than static pressure

265. For uniform flow in canals.
A. there is a balance between the frictional loss and drop in elevation of the channel.
B. bed and free water surfaces of a channel are parallel to each other.
C. bed of channel represents the hydraulic gradient.
D. all the above..

266. If H is height of the liquid above the sill, the effect of end contractions, according to Francis formula, is.
A. 0.1 H.
B. 0.2 H.
C. 0.3 H.
D. 0.4 H.

267. Pick up the correct statement from the following :.
A. For maximum velocity of flow, the depth of water in the circular channel must be 0.81 times the diameter of the channel.
B. For maximum velocity, the hydraulic mean depth must be 0.3 times the diameter of circular channel.
C. For maximum discharge the depth of flow must be 0.95 times the diameter of circular channel.
D. All the above..

268. In flowing liquids pitot tubes are used measure.
A. discharge.
B. pressure.
C. velocity.
D. depth..

269. Capillary rise of water is.
A. directly proportional to surface tension.
B. inversely proportional to water density.
C. inversely proportional to diameter of the tube.
D. All of these..

270. A water tank partially filled with water is being carried on a truck moving with a constant horizontal acceleration. The level of the water.
A. rises on the front side of the tank.
B. falls on the back side of the tank.
C. remains the same at both sides of the tank.
D. rises on the back side and falls on the front side.
Answer = rises on the back side and falls on the front side

271. An error of 1% in measuring the head of water over the crest of a rectangular weir, produces an error in the discharge which is equal to.
A. 0.0125.
B. 0.015.
C. 0.0175.
D. 0.0225.

272. Orifice-meter is used to measure.
A. pressure at the point.
B. discharge.
C. average speed.
D. velocity..

273. Pick up the correct statement from the following :.
A. Dimensional homogeneity means the dimensions of each term in an equation on both sides are equal.
B. Dimensionally homogeneous equations are independent of the system of units.
C. In dimensionally homogeneous equation, the powers of fundamental dimensions on either side of the equation are identical.
D. All the above..

274. The ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid and the viscous force of the liquid is called :.
A. Renold's number.
B. Froude's number.
C. Euler's number.
D. Weber's number..

275. Water belongs to.
A. Newtonian fluids.
B. non-Newtonian fluids.
C. compressible fluid.
D. none of these..

276. Hydraulic radius is equal to.
A. area divided by the square of wetted perimeter.
B. area divided by wetted perimeter.
C. wetted perimeter divided by area.
D. square root of the area..
Answer = area divided by wetted perimeter

277. The acceleration f required to accelerate a rectangular tank containing water horizontally so that the slope of its free surface is 45°, is.
A. g/2.
B. g.
C. 2 g.
D. 2.5 g.

278. For solving network problems of pipes, necessary condition is.
A. continuity equation.
B. energy equation.
C. Darcy-Weisbach equation.
D. all the above..

279. In a fluid flow a particle may posses.
A. elevation energy.
B. kinetic energy.
C. pressure energy.
D. all the above..

280. In two dimensional flow the components of velocity are given by u = ax; v = by. The stream lines will be.
A. circular.
B. parabolic.
C. hyperbolic.
D. elliptical..

281. For a most economical rectangular channel, the hydraulic mean depth, is equal to.
A. the depth of flow.
B. half the depth of flow.
C. one-third depth of flow.
D. None of these..
Answer = half the depth of flow

282. The instrument used for measuring the velocity of flow, is known as.
A. venturimeter.
B. orifice meter.
C. pitot tube.
D. none of these..

283. For a long pipe, the head loss.
A. at the entrance is ignored.
B. at the outlet is ignored.
C. at the entrance and outlet both are ignored.
D. due to friction is ignored..
Answer = at the entrance and outlet both are ignored

284. On a flow net diagram, the distance between two consecutive steam lines at two successive sections are 1 cm and 0.5 cm respectively. If the velocity at the first section is 1 m/sec, the velocity at the second is.
A. 1.0 m/sec.
B. 0.5 m/sec.
C. 2.0 m/sec.
D. 2.5 m/sec.

285. The flow is called rotational if its velocity normal to the plane of area is equal to.
A. angular velocity vector.
B. twice the angular velocity vector.
C. thrice the angular velocity vector.
D. none of these..
Answer = twice the angular velocity vector

286. Flow of water in pipes of diameter more than 3 metres, can be measured by.
A. pitot tube.
B. venturimeter.
C. orifice plate.
D. rotameter..

A. remains above the centre line of conduit.
B. remains below the centre line of conduit.
C. remains parallel to the centre line of conduit.
D. may be above or below the centre line of conduit..
Answer = may be above or below the centre line of conduit.

288. If the Mach number for a fluid flow is less than 1, the flow is.
A. sonic.
B. supersonic.
C. sub-sonic.
D. none of these..

289. Hydraulic coefficient of an orifice means the coefficient of.
A. velocity.
B. contraction.
C. resistance.
D. all the above..

290. In a venturimeter, the divergent cone is kept.
A. shorter than convergent cone.
B. equal to covergent cone.
C. longer than convergent cone.
D. none of these..
Answer = longer than convergent cone

291. Specific weight of sea water is more than that of pure water because of.
A. dissolved air.
B. dissolved salts.
C. suspended matter.
D. all the above..

292. Total pressure on the top of a closed cylindrical vessesl completely filled with liquid, is directly proportional to.

293. Energy equation is usually applicable to.
A. non-uniform flow.
B. turbulent flow.
C. laminar flow.

294. Poise is the unit of.
A. viscosity.
C. mass density.
D. kinematic viscous..

295. For mountaneous regions having steep slope, wagons for carrying liquid are made with bottom.
A. parallel to the road surface.
B. parallel to the horizontal surface.
C. inclined upward while moving upwards.
D. inclined downward while moving downwards..
Answer = parallel to the horizontal surface

296. The upper surface of the weir over which water flows, is known as.
A. vein.
B. nappe.
C. sill.
D. none of these..

297. The ratio of the inertia and viscous forces acting in any flow, ignoring other forces, is called.
A. Euler number.
B. Frode number.
C. Reynold number.
D. Weber number..

298. To avoid the tendency of separation of liquid flow, the most suitable ratio of the diameters of the throat and the pipe, is.
A. 1/4 to 1/8.
B. 1/3 to 1/2.
C. 1/2 to 3/4..
D. none of these..

299.  Hydraulic energy is converted into another form of energy by hydraulic machines. What form of energy is that?.
A. Mechanical Energy.
B. Electrical Energy.
C. Nuclear Energy.
D. Elastic Energy.

300.  In hydraulic turbines, inlet energy is greater than the outlet energy..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

301.  Which principle is used in Hydraulic Turbines?.
B. Newton’s second law.
C. Charles law.
D. Braggs law.

302.  Buckets and blades used in a turbine are used to:.
A. Alter the direction of water.
B. Switch off the turbine.
C. To regulate the wind speed.
D. To regenerate the power.
Answer = Alter the direction of water

303.  _______________is the electric power obtained from the energy of the water..
A. Roto dynamic power.
B. Thermal power.
C. Nuclear power.
D. Hydroelectric power.

304.  Which energy generated in a turbine is used to run electric power generator linked to the turbine shaft?.
A. Mechanical Energy.
B. Potential Energy.
C. Elastic Energy.
D. Kinetic Energy.

305.  Hydraulic Machines fall under the category :.
A. Pulverizers.
B. Kinetic machinery.
C. Condensers.
D. Roto-dynamic machinery.

306.  Which kind of turbines changes the pressure of the water entered through it?.
A. Reaction turbines.
B. Impulse turbines.
C. Reactive turbines.
D. Kinetic turbines.

307.  Which type of turbine is used to change the velocity of the water through its flow?.
A. Kinetic turbines.
B. Axial flow turbines.
C. Impulse turbines.
D. Reaction turbines.

308.  Which type of turbine is a Francis Turbine?.
A. Impulse Turbine.
B. Screw Turbine.
C. Reaction turbine.
D. Turgo turbine.

309.  How many types of Reaction turbines are there?.
A. 5.0.
B. 4.0.
C. 3.0.
D. 9.0.

310.  Turgo Turbine is an impulsive turbine..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

311.  Which kind of turbine is a Fourneyron Turbine?.
A. Inward flow turbine.
B. Outward flow turbine.
C. Mixed flow turbine.

312.  Maximum Number of jets, generally, employed in an impulse turbine without jet interference can be?.
A. 2.0.
B. 3.0.
C. 4.0.
D. 6.0.

313.  The overall efficiency of a reaction turbine is the ratio of.
A. Actual work available at the turbine to the energy imparted to the wheel.
B. Work done on the wheel to the energy (or head of water) actually supplied to the turbine.
C. Power produced by the turbine to the energy actually supplied by the turbine.
D. Actual work available at the turbine to energy imparted to the wheel.
Answer = Actual work available at the turbine to the energy imparted to the wheel

314.  In a reaction turbine, the draft tube is used to _________.
A. To increase the head of water by an amount that is equal to the height of the runner outlet above the tail race.
B. To prevent air to enter the turbine.
C. To increase pressure energy of water.
D. To transport water to downstream.
Answer = To increase the head of water by an amount that is equal to the height of the runner outlet above the tail race

315.  In reaction turbine hydraulic efficiency is______________.
A. Ratio of actual work at the turbine to the energy imparted to the wheel..
B. Ratio of work done on the wheel to energy that is supplied to the turbine..
C. Ratio of power produced by the turbine to the energy actually supplied by the turbine..
D. Ratio of Work done on the wheel to the energy (or head of water) actually supplied to the turbine..
Answer = Ratio of work done on the wheel to energy that is supplied to the turbine.

316.  Consider an inward flow reaction turbine, here, water _______.
A. Flows parallel to the axis of the wheel.
B. Enters the wheel at the outer periphery and then flows towards the centre of the wheel.
C. Flow is partly radial and partly axial.
D. Enters at the centre of the wheel and then flows towards the outer periphery of the wheel.
Answer = Enters the wheel at the outer periphery and then flows towards the centre of the wheel

317.  The working of which of the following hydraulic units is based on Pascal’s law?.
A. Air lift pump.
B. Hydraulic coupling.
C. Hydraulic press.
D. Jet pump.

318.  Which kind of turbine is a Pelton Wheel turbine?.
A. Tangential flow turbine..
C. Outward flow turbine.
D. Inward flow turbine.

319.  IN what type of turbine water enters in radial direction and leaves axial direction?.
A. Tangential flow turbine.
B. Axial flow turbine.
C. Outward flow turbine.
D. Mixed flow turbine.

320.  How many types of turbines can you classify on the basis of direction of flow through runner?.
A. 6.0.
B. 3.0.
C. 4.0.
D. 7.0.

321.  Into how many types can you classify radial flow turbines?.
A. 4.0.
B. 3.0.
C. 6.0.
D. 2.0.

322.  Into how many types can you classify turbines on basis of head at inlet?.
A. 3.0.
B. 4.0.
C. 6.0.
D. 5.0.

323.  Among the following which turbine requires more head?.
A. Pelton Turbine.
B. Kaplan Turbine.
C. Francis turbine.
D. Tube Turbine.

324. Total head of turbines is_______.

325.  Head under which Kaplan turbine is operated______.
A. 10-70 meters.
B. 70 -100 meters.
C. 100-200 meters.
D. Above 200 meters.

326.  Head under which Francis turbine is operated.
A. 10-70 meters.
B. 70-100 meters.
C. 100-200 meters.
D. 40 -600 meters.

327.  The turbine is preferred for 0 to 25 m head of water?.
A. Pelton wheel.
B. Kaplan turbine.
C. Tube turbine.
D. Francis turbine.

328.  Under what head is Pelton turbine operated?.
A. 20-50 meters.
B. 15-2000 meters.
C. 60-200 meters.
D. 50-500 meters.

329.  _____________ is difference between head race and tail race.

330.  The head available at inlet of turbine.

331.  Head lost due to friction is given by k*f*L*v*v/D*2g where f- friction coefficient, L- length of pen stock, D- diameter of penstock and” k” is constant and its value is ____________.
A. 2.0.
B. 3.0.
C. 4.0.
D. 5.0.

332.  The difference between gross head and friction losses is ____________.

333.  _____________ is defined as ratio between power delivered to runner and power supplied at inlet of turbine..
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

334.  Which among the following which is not an efficiency of turbine?.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Electrical efficiency.

335.  The ratio of power at the shaft of turbine and power delivered by water to runner is known as?.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

336.  The product of mechanical efficiency and hydraulic efficiency is known as?.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

337.  Among the following which turbine has highest efficiency?.
A. Kaplan turbine.
B. Francis turbine.
C. Pelton turbine.
D. Propeller turbine.

338.  _____________ is ratio of volume of water actually striking the runner and volume of water supplied to turbine?.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

339.  In the expression for overall efficiency of turbine, which is p/(k*g*q*h), where “k” is known as.
A. Density of liquid.
B. Specific density of liquid.
C. Volume of liquid.
D. Specific gravity of liquid.

340.  The expression for maximum hydraulic efficiency of pelton turbine is given by?.
A. (1+cos k)/2 where k is outlet blade angle.
B. (2+cos k)/2 where k is outlet blade angle.
C. (3+cos k)/2 where k is outlet blade angle.
D. (4+cos k)/2 where k is outlet blade angle.

341.  To obtain maximum hydraulic efficiency of pelton turbine, blade velocity should be ___________ Times the inlet velocity of jet..
A. Half.
B. One quarter.
C. Twice.
D. Thrice.

342.  Among the following which turbine has least efficiency?.
A. Pelton turbine.
B. Kaplan turbine.
C. Francis turbine.
D. Propeller turbine.

343.  The ratio of volume available at shaft of turbine and power supplied at the inlet of the turbine.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

344.  A hydraulic coupling belongs to the category of________.
A. Energy absorbing machines.
B. Energy generating machines.
C. Power absorbing machines.
D. Energy transfer machines.

345.  The electric power which is obtained from hydraulic energy____________.
A. Thermal power.
B. Mechanical power.
C. Solar power.
D. Hydroelectric power.

346.  At present which is cheapest means of generating power_____________.
A. Thermal power.
B. Nuclear power.
C. Hydroelectric power.
D. Electric Power.

347.  Pipes of largest diameter which carry water from reservoir to the turbines is known as_____________.
B. Tail race.
C. Tail stock.
D. Pen stock.

348.  Pen stocks are made up of_____________.
A. Steel.
B. Cast iron.
C. Mild steel.
D. Wrought iron.

349.  ____________is an inward radial flow reaction turbine?.
A. Pelton turbine.
B. Kaplan turbine.
C. Francis turbine.
D. Propeller turbine.

350.  The important type of axial flow reaction turbines are ______________.
A. Propeller and Pelton turbines.
B. Kaplan and Francis turbines.
C. Propeller and Francis turbines.
D. Propeller and Kaplan turbines.
Answer = Propeller and Kaplan turbines

351.  ______________ is a axial flow reaction turbines, if vanes are fixed to hub of turbine.
A. Propeller turbine.
B. Francis turbine.
C. Kaplan turbine.
D. Pelton turbine.

352.  Francis and Kaplan turbines are known as _______.
A. Impulse turbine.
B. Reaction turbine.
C. Axial flow turbine.
D. Mixed flow turbine.

353.  Specific speed of reaction turbine is between?.
A. 5 and 50.
B. 10 and 100.
C. 100 and 150.
D. 150 and 300.

354.  Impulse turbine is generally fitted at ______________.
A. At the level of tail race.
B. Above the tail race.
C. Below the tail race.
D. About 2.5mts above tail race to avoid cavitations..
Answer = Above the tail race

355.  Hydraulic turbines are classified based on ____________.
A. Energy available at inlet of turbine.
B. Direction of flow through vanes.
C. Head at inlet of turbine.
D. Energy available, Direction of flow, Head at inlet..

356.  Impulse turbine and reaction turbine are classified based on ?.
A. Type of energy at inlet.
B. Direction of flow through runner.
C. Head at inlet of turbine.
D. Specific speed of turbine.
Answer = Type of energy at inlet

357.  Tangential flow, axial flow, radial flow turbines are classified based on?.
A. Type of energy at inlet.
B. Direction of flow through runner.
C. Head at inlet of turbine.
D. Specific speed of turbine.
Answer = Direction of flow through runner

A. Type of energy at inlet.
B. Direction of flow through runner.
C. Head at inlet of turbine.
D. Specific speed of turbine.

359.  Low specific speed, high specific speed and medium specific speed are classified based on.
A. Type of energy at inlet.
B. Direction of flow through runner.
C. Head at inlet of turbine.
D. Specific speed of turbine.
Answer = Specific speed of turbine

360.  If energy available at inlet of turbine is only kinetic energy then it is classified based on.
A. Type of energy at inlet.
B. Direction of flow through runner.
C. Head at inlet of turbine.
D. Specific speed of turbine.
Answer = Type of energy at inlet

361.  If water flows in radial direction at inlet of runner and leaves axially at outlet then turbine is named as.
A. Tangential flow turbine.
B. Axial flow turbine.
D. Mixed flow turbine.

362.  Pelton turbine is operated under_________.
A. Low head and high discharge.
B. High head and low discharge.
C. Medium head and high discharge.
D. Medium head and medium discharge.

363.  Kaplan turbine is operated under __________.
A. Low head and high discharge.
B. High head and low discharge.
C. Medium head and high discharge.
D. Medium head and medium discharge.

364.  Medium specific speed of turbine implies _____________.
A. Pelton turbine.
B. Kaplan turbine.
C. Francis turbine.
D. Propeller turbine.

365.  High specific speed of turbine implies that it is___________.
A. Francis turbine.
B. Propeller turbine.
C. Pelton turbine.
D. Kaplan turbine.

366.  Velocity triangles are used to analyze ____________.
A. Flow of water along blades of turbine.
B. Measure discharge of flow.
C. Angle of deflection of jet.
D. Flow of water, measure of discharge, angle of deflection..
Answer = Flow of water, measure of discharge, angle of deflection.

367.  In which of following turbine inlet and outlet blade velocities of vanes are equal?.
A. Francis turbine.
B. Kaplan turbine.
C. Pelton turbine.
D. Propeller turbine.

368.  Tangential velocity of blade of Pelton wheel is proportional to ____________.
A. Speed of wheel.
B. Angular velocity of wheel.
C. Rpm of wheel.
D. Speed, angular velocity, RPM of the wheel.

369.  The value of coefficient of velocity is _____________.
A. 0.98.
B. 0.65.
C. 0.85.
D. 0.33.

370.  In which of following turbine inlet whirl velocity and inlet jet velocity are equal in magnitude?.
A. Pelton turbine.
B. Propeller turbine.
C. Kaplan turbine.
D. Francis turbine.

371.  In Pelton wheel, if outlet velocity angle of jet is “acute angled” then outlet whirl velocity of jet is ______________.
A. x- component of V(r2) – blade velocity.
B. x- component of V (r2) + blade velocity.
C. Blade velocity – x- component of V (r2).
D. Zero.

372.  In Pelton wheel, if outlet velocity angle of jet is “obtuseangled” then outlet whirl velocity of jet is _____________.
A. x- component of V (r2) – blade velocity.
B. x- component of V (r2) + blade velocity.
C. Blade velocity – x- component of V (r2).
D. Zero.

373.  In Pelton wheel, if outlet velocity angle of jet is “right angled” then outlet whirl velocity of jet is __________.
A. x- component of V (r2) – blade velocity.
B. x- component of V (r2) + blade velocity.
C. Blade velocity – x- component of V (r2).
D. Zero.

374.  In Pelton wheel, relative inlet velocity of jet with respect to velocity of vane is _____________.
A. Difference between inlet jet velocity and blade velocity.
B. Sum of inlet jet velocity and blade velocity.
C. Inlet jet velocity.

375.  In Pelton wheel if angle of deflection is not mentioned then we assume it as______________.
A. 150 degrees.
B. 200 degrees.
C. 165 degrees.
D. 185 degrees.

376.  The work done per unit weight of water jet striking runner blades of Pelton turbine is given by expression ______________.
A. [Vw1+Vw2] u/g.
B. Vw1*u/g.
C. [Vw1+Vw2]/g.
D. [Vw1+Vw2]u.

377.  In Pelton turbine the energy available at inlet of runner that is at outlet of nozzle is known as.
A. Shaft power.
B. Runner power.
C. Output power.
D. Water power.

378.  In Pelton turbines the expression for power delivered at inlet to runner is given by __________.
A. W*[Vw1+Vw2]u/g.
B. W*[Vw1-Vw2]u/g.
C. W*[Vw1+Vw2]u/g, W*[Vw1-Vw2]u/g.
D. [Vw1+Vw2]u/g.

379.  In Pelton turbine runner power is more when compared with power available at exit of nozzle..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

380.  Kinetic energy of jet at inlet of turbine is given as __________________.
A. 0.5(paV1)*V1.
B. 0.5(paV1)*V1*V1.
C. 0.5(aV1)*V1*V1.
D. 0.5(pV1)*V1*V1p= density of liquid, a= area of jet, V1= inlet jet velocity.

381.  The force exerted by a jet of water in the direction of jet of jet on a stationary curved plates Fx is ____________ ; p=density, v= velocity of jet, k= blade angle.
A. pav*v.
B. pav.
C. pav*v(1+cos k).
D. pav*v(1+sin k).

382.  The force exerted by a jet of water in the direction of jet of jet on moving curved plates is ___________ ; p=density, v= velocity of jet, k= blade angle, u= blade velocity.
A. pa(v-u)*(v-u).
B. pa(v-u).
C. pav*(v-u)(1+cos k).
D. pa(v-u)*(v-u)(1+sin k).

383.  Calculate work done by jet per second on the runner where, discharge=0.7cubic meters/s, inlet and outlet whirl velocities be 23.77 and 2.94?.
A. 200Kw.
B. 150Kw.
C. 187Kw.
D. 250Kw.

384.  The power supplied at inlet of turbine in S.I units is known as_____________.
A. Shaft power.
B. Runner power.
C. Water power.
D. Total power.

385. The expression for water power in Pelton wheel is ________________.
A. (P*g*Q*H) Kw.
B. (g*Q*H*a) Kw.
C. (g*Q) Kw.
D. (g*H) Kw.

386.  The hydraulic efficiency of Pelton turbine will be maximum when blade velocity is equal to _______.
A. V/2.
B. V/3.
C. V/4.
D. V/5.

387.  In Pelton turbine ___________ is defined as ratio between power delivered to runner and power supplied at inlet of turbine.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

388.  The maximum efficiency of Pelton turbine is _________.
A. 0.8.
B. 0.7.
C. 0.5.
D. 0.88.

389.  In Pelton turbine product of mechanical efficiency and hydraulic efficiency is known as _____________.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

390.  Among the following which turbine has least efficiency?.
A. Pelton turbine.
B. Kaplan turbine.
C. Francis turbine.
D. Propeller turbine.

391.  In Pelton ____________ is ratio of volume of water actually striking the runner and volume of water supplied to turbine?.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

392.  In Pelton turbine the ratio of volume available at shaft of turbine and power supplied at the inlet of the turbine is _______.
A. Mechanical efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Hydraulic efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

393.  The expression for maximum hydraulic efficiency of Pelto turbine is given by ______________.
A. (1+cos k)/2 where k is outlet blade angle.
B. (2+cos k)/2 where k is outlet blade angle.
C. (3+cos k)/2 where k is outlet blade angle.
D. (4+cos k)/2 where k is outlet blade angle.

394.  In the expression for overall efficiency of turbine, which is p/ (k*g*q*h), where “k” is known as _______.
A. Specific density of liquid.
B. Density of liquid.
C. Specific gravity of liquid.
D. Volume of liquid.

395.  In Pelton turbine hydraulic efficiency is product of mechanical efficiency and overall efficiency..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

396.  The expression for hydraulic efficiency is given by.
A. 2(V1-u)[1+cos k]u/V1*V1.
B. 2(V1+u)[1+cos k]u/V1*V1.
C. 2(V1-u)[1-cos k]u/V1*V1.

397.  In Pelton turbine inlet velocity of jet is 85.83m/s, inlet and outlet whirl velocities be 85.83 and 0.143 and blade velocity be 38.62 then its hydraulic efficiency is ___________.
A. 0.9014.
B. 0.8.
C. 0.7.
D. 0.85.

398.  Design of Pelton wheel means the following data is to be determined..
A. Width of buckets.
B. Depth of buckets.
C. Number of buckets.
D. All of the mentioned.
Answer = All of the mentioned

399.  The width of buckets of Pelton wheel is _________________.
A. 2 times diameter of jet.
B. 3 times diameter of jet.
C. 4 times diameter of jet.
D. 5 times diameter of jet.
Answer = 5 times diameter of jet

400.  The depth of buckets of Pelton wheel ____________.
A. 1.2 times diameter of jet.
B. 1.3 times diameter of jet.
C. 1.4 times diameter of jet.
D. 1.5 times diameter of jet.
Answer = 1.2 times diameter of jet

401.  The ratio of pitch diameter of Pelton wheel to diameter of jet is known as ___________.
A. Speed ratio.
B. Jet ratio.
C. Velocity ratio.
D. Co-efficient of velocity.

402.  Find the diameter of jet D, if jet ratio m and diameter of jet d are given as 10 and 125mm..
A. 1.25 meters.
B. 1.5 meters.
C. 2 meters.
D. 1.2 meters.

403.  The number of buckets of Pelton wheel is 25 and diameter of runner is 1.5meters then calculate diameter of jet is ___________.
A. 80mm.
B. 85mm.
C. 90mm.
D. 82mm.

404.  In most of cases the value of jet ratio is _______________.
A. 10.0.
B. 11.0.
C. 12.0.
D. 13.0.

405.  Number of buckets on runner of Pelton wheel is given by expression? (D-diameter of runner and d- diameter of jet).
A. 15 + D/2d.
B. 15 + 3D/2d.
C. 15 + D/d.
D. 15 + 2D/d.

406.  ____________ is obtained by dividing total rate of flow through the turbine by rate of flow through single jet..
A. Number of jets.
B. Diameter of jets.
C. Velocity of jets.
D. Speed ratio.

407.  If diameter of jet is 85mm and diameter of runner is 1.5 meter then calculate width of buckets..
A. 400mm.
B. 500mm.
C. 420mm.
D. 425mm.

408.  If diameter of jet is 85mm and diameter of runner is 1.5 meter then depth of buckets is ___________.
A. 100mm.
B. 105mm.
C. 106mm.
D. 102mm.

409.  If diameter of jet is 85mm and diameter of runner is 1.5 meter then calculate number of buckets on Pelton wheel approximately.
A. 20.0.
B. 22.0.
C. 23.0.
D. 25.0.

410.  The width of Pelton wheel should be 5 times the diameter of jet?.
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

411.  The ratio of diameter of jet to diameter of runner is _____________.
A. 31-Dec-1899.
B. 31-Dec-1899.
C. 31-Dec-1899.
D. 31-Dec-1899.

412.  Radial flow reaction turbines are those turbines in which water flows ____________.
B. Axial direction.
C. Tangential direction.
D. All of the mentioned.

413.  Main parts of radial flow reaction turbines are ______________.
A. Casing.
B. Guide mechanism.
C. Draft tube.
D. All of the mentioned.
Answer = All of the mentioned

414.  Discharge through radial flow reaction turbine is ______________ ; Where, P1= perimeter of runner at inlet, P2= perimeter of runner at outlet, b= thickness and Vf= flow velocity.
A. P1*b1*Vf1.
B. P2*b2*Vf2.
C. P1*b2*Vf2.
D. Both P1*b1*Vf1 & P2*b2*Vf2.
Answer = Both P1*b1*Vf1 & P2*b2*Vf2

415.  Radial flow reaction turbines contain spiral casing which area ____________.
A. Remains constant.
D. Suddenly decreases.

416.  ____________ consists of stationary circular wheel all around the runner of turbine.
A. Casing.
B. Guide mechanism.
C. Runner.
D. Drafting.

417.  The casing of radial flow reaction turbine is made of spiral shape, so that water may enter the runner__________.
A. Variable acceleration.
B. Constant acceleration.
C. Variable velocity.
D. Constant velocity.

418.  _____________ allow the water to strike the vanes fixed on runner without shock at inlet.
A. Casing.
B. Guide vanes.
C. Runner.
D. Draft tube.

A. Cast steel.
B. Cast iron.
C. Wrought iron.
D. Steel.

420.  The pressure at the exit of runner of reaction turbine is generally____________than atmospheric pressure.
A. Greater.
B. Lesser.
C. Constant.
D. Equal.

421.  ___________is a pipe of gradually increasing area used for discharging water from exit of the turbine to the tail race.
A. Casing.
B. Guide mechanism.
C. Draft tube.
D. Runner.

422.  ____________and __________of radial flow reaction turbine are always full of water..
A. Casing and runner.
B. Casing and penstocks.
C. Runner and penstocks.
D. Runner and draft tube.

423.  ____________governs the flow of water entering the runner blades..
A. Casing.
B. Guide vanes.
C. Draft tube.
D. Runner.

424.  Spiral casing of reaction turbine will regulate the flow?.
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

425.  Inward radial flow reaction turbine is a turbine in which water flows across the blades of runner______________.
D. Axial direction.

426.  Which of following is inward radial flow reaction turbine?.
A. Pelton wheel.
B. Francis turbine.
C. Axial turbine.
D. Kaplan turbine.

427.  In Inward radial flow reaction turbine which is not required?.
A. Runner.
B. Air tight casing.
C. Guide vanes.
D. Breaking jet.

428.  The main difference between reaction turbine and inward radial flow reaction turbine is water flows___________.
D. Axial direction.

429.  In Inward radial flow reaction turbine the ratio of tangential wheel at inlet to given velocity of jet is known as _______.
A. Speed ratio.
B. Flow ratio.
C. Discharge.

430.  In Inward radial flow reaction turbine the ratio of tangential velocity at inlet to the given velocity ____________.
A. Speed ratio.
B. Flow ratio.
C. Discharge.

431.  The discharge through a reaction radial flow turbine is given by____________ ; Where, P1= perimeter of runner at inlet, P2= perimeter of runner at outlet, b= thickness and V f= flow velocity.
A. P1*b1*Vf1.
B. P2*b2*Vf2.
C. P1*b2*Vf2.
D. Both a & b.
Answer = Both a & b

432.  In Inward radial flow reaction turbine if thickness is considered then discharge is _________; Where, P1= perimeter of runner at inlet, P2= perimeter of runner at outlet, b= width, Vf= flow velocity, n= number of blades and t= thickness of blades.
A. (P1-n*t)*b1*Vf1.
B. (P2-n*t)*b2*Vf2.
C. (P1-n*t)*b2*Vf2.
D. Both a & b.
Answer = Both a & b

433.  In Inward radial flow reaction turbine if angle made by absolute velocity with its tangent is 90 degrees and component of whirl is zero at outlet is _____________.
C. Flow ratio.
D. Speed ratio.

434.  In which of following turbine whirl component is zero?.
A. Reaction turbine.
B. Inward radial flow reaction turbine.
C. Axial flow turbine.
D. Impulse turbine.

435.  Discharge in inward flow reaction turbine ____________.
A. Increases.
B. Decreases.
C. Remains constant.

436.  Speed control of Outward flow reaction turbine is _________.
A. Easy.
B. Moderate.
C. Difficult.
D. Very difficult.

437.  Centrifugal head in inward flow reaction turbine __________.
A. Increases.
B. Decreases.
C. Remains constant.

438.  Tendency of wheel to race is almost nil in ___________turbine.
A. Inward flow reaction turbine.
B. Outward flow reaction turbine.
C. Impulse turbine.
D. Axial flow turbine.
Answer = Inward flow reaction turbine

439.  Inward flow reaction turbine is used in practical applications __________.
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

440.  The formation of vapour cavities is called _____.
A. Static pressure drop.
B. Cavitation.
C. Isentropic expansion.
D. Emulsion.

441.  What is the degree of reaction denoted as?.
A. D.
B. R.
C. r.
D. d.

442.  Voids are created due to______.
A. Reaction ratio.
B. Pressure ratio.
C. Liquid free layers.
D. Volumetric layers.

443.  Cavitation usually occurs due to the changes in ________.
A. Pressure.
B. Temperature.
C. Volume.
D. Heat.

444.  Degree of reactions are most commonly used in________.
A. Turbomachinery.
B. Pressure drag.
C. Aerodynamics.
D. Automobiles.

445.  At high pressure, the voids can generate ______.
A. Drag force.
B. Mass density.
C. Shock waves.
D. Flow speed.

446.  Voids that implode near metal surface develops a_______.
A. Drag force.
B. Cyclic stress.
C. Shock waves.
D. Flow speed.

447.  In case of gas turbines and compressors, degree of reaction is ________.
A. Static pressure drop in rotor/ static pressure drop in stage.
B. Static pressure drop in stage/ static pressure drop in rotor.
C. Isentropic enthalpy drop in rotor/ isentropic enthalpy drop in stage.
D. Static temperature drop in stage/ static temperature drop in rotor.
Answer = Isentropic enthalpy drop in rotor/ isentropic enthalpy drop in stage

448.  Non- inertial cavitation is the one in which a bubble of fluid is forced to oscillate..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

449.  The velocities of the blade angles can be found out using________.
A. Mach number.
B. Froude’s number.
C. Velocity triangles.
D. Reynolds number.

450.  Which among the following velocities cannot be found using the velocity triangle?.
A. Tangential.
B. Whirl.
C. Relative.
D. Parabolic.

451.  Hydrodynamic cavitation is due to the process of _________.
A. Vaporisation.
B. Sedimentation.
C. Filtration.
D. Excavation.

452.  The process of bubble generation leads to __________.
A. High temperatures.
B. High pressures.
C. High energy densities.
D. High volumetric ratio.

453.  Super cavitation is the use of cavitation effect to create a bubble of steam inside a liquid..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

454.  Degree of reaction turbine is the ratio of?.
A. Pressure energy to total energy.
B. Kinetic energy to total energy.
C. Potential energy to total energy.
D. Kinetic energy to potential energy.
Answer = Pressure energy to total energy

455.  Which of these options are best suited for the total energy change inside the runner per unit weight?.
A. Degree of action.
B. Degree of reaction.
C. Turbulence.
D. Efficiency of turbine.

456.  Which of these ratios are termed to be hydraulic efficiency?.
A. Water power to delivered power.
B. Delivered power to input power.
C. Power lost to power delivered.
D. Runner power to water power.
Answer = Runner power to water power

457.  When a container containing a liquid is rotated, then due to centrifugal action, then which of these energies are changed?.
A. Kinetic energy.
B. Pressure energy.
C. Potential energy.
D. Energy due to viscous force.

458.  For an actual reaction turbine, what should be the angle beta, such that the loss of kinetic energy at the outlet is to be minimum?.
A. 90.0.
B. 45.0.
C. 60.0.
D. 30.0.

459.  Discharge through a reaction flow reaction turbine is given by, Q = ______.
A. Pi*d*b*Vf1.
B. Pi*d*d*b*Vf1.
C. Pi*d*b*b*Vf2.
D. Pi*b*b*Vf1.

460.  When the thicknesses of vanes are to be considered in the discharge of a turbine, what will be the area under consideration?.
A. Pi*d – n*t.
B. Pi*d – n*n*t.
C. Pi*d – t*t.
D. Pi*d *d– n*t.

461.  The speed ratio is defined as u/(2gH)^1/2.
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

462.  Flow ratio is defined as Vf1/(2gH)^1/2.
A. FALSE.
B. TRUE.
C. FALSE.
D. Nothing can be said.

463.  The water from penstocks enters the _____ which is spiral in shape which the area of cross section of casing goes on decreasing gradually.
A. guide wheel.
B. draft tube.
C. casing.
D. runner.

464.  If the water flows from inwards to outwards, the turbine is known as _____________.
A. Tangential flow turbine.
B. Turbulent low inward flow.
C. Inward flow turbine.
D. Outward flow turbine.

465.  In general, reaction turbines consist of which types of energies?.
A. kinetic energy and potential energy.
B. potential energy and pressure energy.
C. kinetic energy and pressure energy.
D. gravitational energy and potential energy.
Answer = kinetic energy and pressure energy

466.  ___________ is a circular wheel on which a series of smooth, radial curved vanes are fixed..
A. Guide wheel.
B. Runner.
C. Casing.
D. Draft tube.

467.  In outward radial flow reaction turbines, tangential velocity at inlet is less than that of the outlet..
A. FALSE.
B. TRUE.
C. FALSE.
D. Nothing can be said.

468.  In impulse turbines with moving blades, there is no _________ in blades of the turbine..
A. Pressure change.
B. Same pressure.
C. Volumetric change.
D. Pressure independent.

469.  In impulse turbines with stationary blades, there is_________ in blades of the turbine..
A. Pressure change.
B. Same pressure.
C. Volumetric change.
D. Pressure independent.

470.  In an outward flow reaction turbine the discharge _______.
A. Increases.
B. Decreases.
C. Same.
D. Independent.

471.  Before reaching the turbine, the acceleration of the fluid takes place through the__________.
A. Vane angle.
B. Nozzle.
C. Pump.
D. Pipe.

472.  The Pelton wheel extracts energy from________.
A. Vane angle.
B. Moving fluid.
C. Increase in temperature.
D. Heat rejection.

473.  Pelton wheel is a Reaction type water turbine..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

474.  The outward radial flow reaction turbine is a turbine in which direction of water flow is ___________.
D. Axial direction.

475.  Outward flow reaction turbine is used in practical applications.
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

476.  The energy available at inlet for outward reaction flow turbine is ____________.
A. Potential.
B. Kinetic energy.
C. Pressure energy.
D. Pressure energy and Kinetic energy.
Answer = Pressure energy and Kinetic energy

477.  Centrifugal head in Outward flow reaction turbine _____________.
A. Increases.
B. Decreases.
C. Remains constant.

478.  Discharge in outward flow reaction turbine ____________.
A. Increases.
B. Decreases.
C. Remains constant.

479.  Speed control of Outward flow reaction turbine is _____________.
A. Easy.
B. Moderate.
C. Difficult.
D. Very difficult.

480.  Tendency of wheel to race is predominant in____________turbine.
A. Inward flow reaction turbine.
B. Outward flow reaction turbine.
C. Impulse turbine.
D. Axial flow turbine.
Answer = Outward flow reaction turbine

481.  Outward flow reaction turbine will quite suitable for_____________.

482.  In outward flow reaction turbine tangential velocity at inlet is always__________than outlet velocity..
A. Equal.
B. Less.
C. More.
D. Constant.

483.  In outward radial flow reaction turbine if angle made by absolute velocity with its tangent is 90 degrees and component of whirl is zero at inlet is _______________.
C. Flow ratio.
D. Speed ratio.

484.  In outward radial flow reaction turbine if thickness is considered then discharge is ____________ ; Where, P1= perimeter of runner at inlet, P2= perimeter of runner at outlet, b= width, Vf= flow velocity, n= number of blades and t= thickness of blades.
A. (P1-n*t)*b1*Vf1.
B. (P2-n*t)*b2*Vf2.
C. (P1-n*t)*b2*Vf2.
D. Both (P1-n*t)*b1*Vf1 & (P2-n*t)*b2*Vf2.
Answer = Both (P1-n*t)*b1*Vf1 & (P2-n*t)*b2*Vf2

485.  The main difference between reaction turbine and outward radial flow reaction turbine is water flows __________.
D. Axial direction.

486.  In outward radial flow reaction turbine the ratio of tangential wheel at inlet to given velocity of jet is known as ___________.
A. Speed ratio.
B. Flow ratio.
C. Discharge.

487.  Conical diffuser draft tube is also called_______.
A. Straight divergent tube.
B. Simple elbow tube.
C. Thermal tube.
D. Elbow tube with varying cross section.

488.  Steam turbine converts energy into________.
A. Electrical work.
B. Mechanical work.
C. Chemical work.
D. Thermal work.

489.  Most common application of steam turbine is _______.
A. Motor.
B. Generator.
C. Pump.
D. Filter.

490.  Conical diffuser draft tube consists of conical diffuser with angles of______.
A. 10 degrees.
B. 20 degrees.
C. 30 degrees.
D. 40 degrees.

491.  What is the purpose of a conical diffuser?.
A. To prevent flow separation.
B. To avoid Pressure drag.
C. To prevent rejection of heat.
D. To increase efficiency.
Answer = To prevent flow separation

492.  What is the efficiency of conical diffuser draft tube?.
A. 30.0.
B. 50.0.
C. 70.0.
D. 90.0.

493.  The simple elbow draft tube is placed close to the_______.
B. Tail race.
C. Tank.
D. Nozzle.

494.  Turbine that consists of moving nozzles and with fixed nozzles is called as__________.
A. Impulse turbine.
B. Curtis turbine.
C. Rateau turbine.
D. Reaction turbine.

495.  An example of reaction turbine is________.
A. Parsons turbine.
B. Curtis turbine.
C. Rateau turbine.
D. Pelton wheel.

496.  When we arrange turbine blades in multiple stages it is called ________.
A. Pressure change.
B. Vane deviation.
C. Compounding.
D. Pressure ratio.

497.  Compounding is needed to ___________.
A. Increase Pressure.
B. Decrease temperature.
C. Change volume.
D. Increase efficiency.

498.  Which among the following is not a type of compounding?.
A. Pressure.
B. Temperature.
C. Pressure velocity.
D. Velocity.

499.  Newtons second law describes the transfer of energy through impulse turbines..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

500.  Inner radial flow extracts energy from _____.
B. Moving fluid.
C. Pressure change.
D. Temperature increase.

501.  Reaction turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas or fluids pressure or mass..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

502.  What is the water flow direction in the runner in a Francis turbine?.
A. Axial and then tangential.
B. Tangential and then axial.

503.  Which of the following is true in case of flow of water before it enters the runner of a Francis Turbine?.

504.  Why does the cross sectional area of the Spiral casing gradually decrease along the circumference of the Francis turbine from the entrance to the tip?.
A. To ensure constant velocity of water during runner entry.
B. To prevent loss of efficiency of the turbine due to impulsive forces caused by extra area.
C. To prevent leakage from the turbine.
D. To reduce material costs in order to make the turbine more economical.
Answer = To ensure constant velocity of water during runner entry

505.  Which of the following profiles are used for guide vanes to ensure smooth flow without separation?.
A. Rectangular.
B. Bent Rectangular.
C. Elliptical.
D. Aerofoil.

506.  In which of the following type of runners the velocity of whirl at inlet is greater than the blade velocity?.
A. Such a case is practically impossible.
B. Slow Runner.
C. Medium Runner.
D. Fast Runner.

507.  Which of the following runner types will have the highest vane angle at inlet (β1 value)?.
A. Slow Runner.
B. Medium Runner.
C. Fast Runner.
D. Vane angle is defined only for Kaplan Turbines and not Francis turbines.

508.  In case of a Medium runner, tan (α1) CANNOT be given by (α1 = Guide vane angle at inlet)?.
A. Vf1 / Vw1.
B. Vr1 / Vw1.
C. Vr1 / u1.
D. Vw1 / u1.

509.  In the velocity diagrams for Francis turbine, which of the following velocity directions is along the blade curvature?.
A. Vr1.
B. Vw1.
C. V1.
D. u1.

510.  Francis turbine is typically used for which of the following values of available heads?.
A. 300 m.
B. 100 m.
C. 30 m.
D. 5 m.

511.  Water flow velocity is given 10 m/s. The runner diameter is 3 m and the width of the wheel is 25 cm. Find the mass of water (kg) flowing across the runner per second..
A. 7500π.
B. 50π.
C. 300π.
D. RPM of the turbine needs to be given.

512.  Work done per second by a Francis turbine can be given by ρAVf (Vw1u1 + Vw2u2)..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

513.  Which of the following terms is considered to be zero while deriving the equation for work done per second for Francis Turbine?.
A. Vr1.
B. Vw2.
C. Vf2.
D. Vr2.

514.  Power developed by Francis turbine are calculated for a certain set of conditions. Now, the inlet whirl velocity is doubled, the blade velocity at inlet is doubled and the flow velocity is quartered. The power developed:.
A. Is 4 times the original value.
B. Is 2 times the original value.
C. Is ½ times the original value.
D. Is same as the original value.
Answer = Is same as the original value

515.  Volume flow rate of water in a Francis turbine runner is 25 m3/s. The flow velocity, whirl velocity and blade velocity are 11 m/s, 10 m/s and 5 m/s respectively, all values given at runner inlet. Find the power developed by the turbine..
A. 25 kW.
B. 1.25 MW.
C. 1.25 kW.
D. 25 MW.

516.  The flow rate of the water flow in a Francis turbine is increased by 50% keeping all the other parameters same. The work done by the turbine changes by?.
A. 50% increase.
B. 25% increase.
C. 100% increase.
D. 150% increase.

517.  A student performs an experiment with a Francis turbine. He accidently set the RPM of Francis turbine to 1400 rpm instead of 700 rpm. He reported the power to be 1 MW. His teacher asks him to perform the same experiment using the correct RPM. The student performs the same experiment again, but this time the erroneously doubled the flow velocity. What does the student report the power to be?.
A. 0.5 MW.
B. 0.25 MW.
C. 2 MW.
D. 1 MW.

518.  Velocity of whirl at the runner inlet is given to be 10 m/s and blade velocity to be 5 m/s. The volume flow rate of water in Francis turbine is given to be 25 m3/s. Find the power generated by the turbine?.
A. 1700 HP.
B. 800 HP.
C. 3400 HP.
D. 1000 HP.

519.  The available head of a Francis Turbine is 100 m. Velocity of the flow at the runner inlet is 15 m/s. Find the flow ratio..
A. 0.33.
B. 0.45.
C. 0.67.
D. 0.89.

520.  How does the flow ratio (ψ) of a Francis turbine vary with available head (H)?.
A. ψ α H.
B. ψ α 1/H.
C. ψ α sqrt (H).
D. ψ α 1/(sqrt (H)).
Answer = ψ α 1/(sqrt (H))

521.  What is the typical value for flow ratio in a Francis turbine?.
A. 0.05 – 0.1.
B. 0.15 – 0.30.
C. 0.35 – 0.45.
D. 0.50 – 0.60.

522.  The available head of a Francis Turbine is 120 m. The blade velocity is given 35 m/s. Find the speed ratio of the turbine..
A. 0.56.
B. 0.61.
C. 0.71.
D. 0.81.

523.  The speed ratio (φ) varies directly with which of the following parameters?.
A. Vw1.
B. V1.
C. N (RPM).

524.  The typical value range of speed ratio for a Francis turbine is:.
A. 0.3 – 0.6.
B. 0.5 – 0.6.
C. 0.1 – 0.4.
D. 0.6 – 0.9.

525.  Which of the following efficiencies for Francis Turbine is described as the ratio between the power produced by runner to the power supplied by water at the inlet?.
A. Hydraulic efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Mechanical efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

526.  Which of the following efficiencies for Francis Turbine is described as the ratio between total quantity of water over runner blades to total quantity of water supplied to turbine?.
A. Hydraulic efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Mechanical efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

527.  Which of the following efficiencies for Francis Turbine is defined as the ratio between the power available at the shaft of the turbine to the power produced by the runner?.
A. Hydraulic efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Mechanical efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

528.  Which of the following efficiencies for Francis Turbine is defined as the ratio between the power available at the shaft to the power supplied by water at the inlet?.
A. Hydraulic efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Mechanical efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

529.  The whirl velocity at inlet of Francis turbine is given to be 20 m/s. The blade velocity is given as 35 m/s. What is the hydraulic efficiency for a head of 100 m?.
A. 0.8.
B. 0.9.
C. 0.7.
D. 0.98.

530.  The desired hydraulic efficiency of a turbine is 80% at a whirl velocity of 20 m/s and a head of 100 m. What should be the blade velocity of the turbine at inlet in m/s?.
A. 40.0.
B. 60.0.
C. 80.0.
D. 25.0.

531.  The input water power of the Francis turbine is 1.25 times the runner power. What would be the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine (in %)?.
A. 60.0.
B. 70.0.
C. 80.0.
D. 90.0.

532.  The volume flow rate into a Francis turbine is Q m3/s. 0.25Q m3/s volume of water do not flow over the runner blades. What is the mechanical efficiency of the turbine (in %)?.
A. 65.0.
B. 75.0.
C. 80.0.
D. Mechanical efficiency cannot be found out from the given information.
Answer = Mechanical efficiency cannot be found out from the given information

533.  The volumetric efficiency of a Francis turbine is given to be 90%. If the volume flow rate through the turbine is 25 m3/s. What is the flow rate of water over the runner blades (in m3/s)?.
A. 20.0.
B. 25.0.
C. 22.5.
D. 21.5.

534.  The volumetric efficiency of a given turbine is 80%. If volume flow rate of water in given to be 30 m3/s, find the volume of water (m3) NOT flowing over the runner blades per second?.
A. 5.0.
B. 6.0.
C. 10.0.
D. 12.0.

535.  The power available at the shaft of a Francis turbine is 1 MW. The volume flow rate of water in 25 m3/s, whirl velocity at inlet is 10 m/s and blade velocity is 5 m/s. Find the mechanical efficiency (in %)?.
A. 65.0.
B. 75.0.
C. 80.0.
D. 90.0.

536.  The whirl velocity at inlet is 15 m/s and blade velocity is 10 m/s. The volume flow rate of water in 20 m3/s. Find the power output available at the shaft if the mechanical efficiency is 95% (in MW)?.
A. 2.85.
B. 3.075.
C. 6.55.
D. 0.285.

537.  The power output of the shaft is 5 MW. The volume flow rate of water in 10 m3/s at an available head of 60 m. Find the overall efficiency of the turbine in % (g = 10 m/s2)?.
A. 80.0.
B. 82.5.
C. 83.3.
D. 85.0.

538.  The volume flow rate of water in 10 m3/s at an available head of 60 m (g = 10 m/s3). Find the shaft power (in MW) if the overall efficiency of the turbine is 90%..
A. 54.0.
B. 5.4.
C. 540.0.
D. 0.54.

539.  The hydraulic efficiency of a Francis turbine is 90%, the mechanical efficiency is 95% and the volumetric efficiency is assumed to be 100%. Fine the overall efficiency (in %)?.
A. 80.0.
B. 85.5.
C. 87.5.
D. 83.3.

540.  In a Kaplan turbine, what is the direction of water flow?.
A. Axial and then axial.
C. Tangential and then axial.
Answer = Axial and then axial

541.  For which of the following values of available heads may Kaplan turbine be used?.
A. 250 m.
B. 100 m.
C. 80 m.
D. 50 m.

542.  In this type of low head turbine, the guide vanes are fixed to the hub of the turbine and are not adjustable. What is this type of turbine called?.
A. Francis turbine.
B. Kaplan Turbine.
C. Propeller Turbine.
D. Pelton turbine.

543.  The velocity of flow through a Kaplan turbine is 10 m/s. The outer diameter of the runner is 4 m and the hub diameter is 2 m. Find the volume flow rate of the turbine in m3/s?.
A. 95.0.
B. 75.0.
C. 85.0.
D. 105.0.

544.  The velocity of the flow at the inlet of Kaplan turbine is V. In an experimental setup, what could be the possible value of the velocity of the flow at the outlet of Kaplan turbine?.
A. V.
B. 0.8V.
C. 1.2V.
D. 2V.

545.  Which of the following turbines will have the lowest number of blades in it?.
A. Pelton turbine.
B. Steam turbine.
C. Francis turbine.
D. Kaplan turbine.

546.  The velocity of the flow through the Kaplan turbine is 25 m/s. The available head of the turbine is 60 m. Find the flow ratio of the turbine (take g = 10 m/s2)..
A. 0.65.
B. 0.72.
C. 0.69.
D. 0.75.

547.  A Kaplan turbine requires a speed ratio of 2. The available head of the turbine is 5 m. What should be the blade velocity of the turbine such that a speed ratio of 2 is maintained (take g = 10 m/s2)?.
A. 75.75 m/s.
B. 63.25 m/s.
C. 23.35 m/s.
D. 50.00 m/s.

548.  The flow ratio of a Kaplan turbine is given as 0.7. The available head is 30 m. The outer diameter of the runner is 3.5 m and the hub diameter is 2 m. Find the volume of water flowing through the turbine per second (m3/s)?.
A. 90.0.
B. 111.0.
C. 125.0.
D. 168.0.

549.  In which of the following type of runners in a Kaplan turbine the velocity of whirl at inlet is smaller than the blade velocity?.
A. Such a case is practically impossible.
B. Slow Runner.
C. Medium Runner.
D. Fast Runner.

550.  In the outlet velocity triangle of a Kaplan turbine, β2 = 30o. Vf2 = 5 m/s. What is the relative velocity of the flow at outlet?.
A. 10 m/s.
B. 5.77 m/s.
C. 8.66 m/s.
D. 2.88 m/s.

551.  In the inlet velocity triangle of a Kaplan turbine, α1 = 45o. The velocity of flow at inlet = 10 m/s. Find the whirl velocity of water at the inlet of Kaplan turbine?.
A. 5 m/s.
B. 10 m/s.
C. 12.5 m/s.
D. 15 m/s.

552.  The whirl velocity of water at the inlet of the Kaplan turbine is 15 m/s. The velocity of water at inlet of the turbine is 20 m/s. Find the guide vane angle at inlet (In degrees)..
A. 53.13.
B. 36.86.
C. 45.0.
D. 41.41.

553.  The relative velocity of water at the inlet of the Kaplan turbine is 7 m/s. β1 = 75o. The whirl velocity of the water at inlet is 10 m/s. Find the blade velocity of the turbine?.
A. 26.124 m/s.
B. 40 m/s.
C. 36.124 m/s.
D. 60 m/s.

554.  Kaplan turbine works on________.
A. Electrical energy.
B. Hydro energy.
C. Thermal energy.
D. Chemical energy.

555.  Kaplan turbine is an ______ reaction turbine.
A. Inward flow.
B. Outward flow.
D. Axial.

556.  The Kaplan Turbine is an evolution of ________.
A. Francis turbine.
B. Pelton wheel.
C. Parsons turbine.
D. Curtis turbine.

557.  What is the dimension of thermal efficiency of a Kaplan turbine?.
A. kg.
B. m.
C. kg/m.
D. Dimensionless.

558.  A Kaplan turbine is used in ________.
A. Turbomachinery.
B. Pressure drag.
C. Aerodynamics.
D. Automobiles.

559.  The head of the Kaplan ranges from ______.
A. 100 to 200 m.
B. 250 to 300 m.
C. 10 to 70 m.
D. 0 m.
Answer = 10 to 70 m

560.  Nozzles in the Kaplan turbine move due to impact of ________.
A. Water.
B. Steam.
D. Another nozzle.

561.  The power output of Kaplan turbine ranges from__________.
A. 5 to 200 MW.
B. 1000 to 2000 MW.
C. 2000 to 3000 MW.
D. 5000 and above.
Answer = 5 to 200 MW

562.  Kaplan turbines rotates at a ________ rate.
A. Increasing.
B. Decreasing.
C. Constant.
D. Increasing and then decreasing.

563.  What type of turbine is Kaplan?.
A. Impulse.
B. Reaction.
C. Energy.
D. Hydro.

564.  Kaplan turbine is needed to improve ________.
A. Increase Pressure.
B. Decrease temperature.
C. Change volume.
D. Increase efficiency.

565.  Kaplan turbine is an ________ type turbine.
A. Pressure.
B. Inward flow.
C. Outward flow.
D. Velocity.

566.  The turbine does not have to be at the lowest point of water flow as long as the water in the draft tube is full..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

567.  The outlet of the Kaplan turbine is through _______.
B. Moving pipeline.
C. Draft tube.
D. Pump.

568.  Kaplan turbine is most commonly used in propeller turbines..
A. TRUE.
B. FALSE.
C. Nothing can be said.
D. None of the mentioned.

569.  For a Kaplan turbine, the whirl velocity at inlet of the turbine is given to be 18 m/s. The blade velocity is given as 25 m/s. What is the hydraulic efficiency for a head of 50 m. Take g = 10 m/s2?.
A. 0.8.
B. 0.9.
C. 0.7.
D. 0.98.

570.  Which of the following efficiencies for Kaplan Turbine is described as the ratio between the power produced by runner to the power supplied by water at the inlet?.
A. Hydraulic efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Mechanical efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

571.  The desired hydraulic efficiency of a Kaplan turbine is 98% at a whirl velocity of 20 m/s and a head of 60 m. What should be the blade velocity of the turbine at inlet in m/s? Take g = 10 m/s2..
A. 40.0.
B. 60.0.
C. 80.0.
D. 30.0.

572.  It is given that the input water power of the Kaplan turbine is 1.10 times the runner power. What would be the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine (in %)?.
A. 60.61.
B. 70.71.
C. 80.81.
D. 90.91.

573.  Which of the following efficiencies for Kaplan Turbine is described as the ratio between total quantity of water over runner blades to total quantity of water supplied to turbine?.
A. Hydraulic efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Mechanical efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

574.  The volume flow rate into a Kaplan turbine is Q m3/s. 0.10Q m3/s volume of water do not flow over the runner blades. What further information is required to find the volumetric efficiency (numerical value) of the Kaplan turbine?.
A. The numerical value of Q.
B. The available head of the turbine.
C. The RPM or the blade velocity of the turbine.
D. No further information is required.
Answer = No further information is required

575.  A student reports the volumetric efficiency of a Kaplan turbine to be 95%. If he measures the volume flow rate through the turbine is 40 m3/s. What is the flow rate of water over the runner blades (in m3/s)?.
A. 38.0.
B. 40.0.
C. 42.11.
D. 45.0.

576.  In a Kaplan turbine experiment, the volumetric efficiency of a given turbine is 91%. If volume flow rate of water in given to be 35 m3/s, find the volume of water (m3) NOT flowing over the runner blades per second?.
A. 4.05.
B. 3.15.
C. 3.3.
D. 2.55.

577.  Which of the following efficiencies for Kaplan Turbine is defined as the ratio between the power available at the shaft of the turbine to the power produced by the runner?.
A. Hydraulic efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Mechanical efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

578.  The power available at the shaft of a Kaplan turbine is 0.75 MW. The volume flow rate of water in 15 m3/s, whirl velocity at inlet is 12 m/s and blade velocity is 5 m/s. Find the mechanical efficiency (in %)?.
A. 66.66.
B. 75.0.
C. 83.33.
D. 91.33.

579.  The whirl velocity at inlet of a Kaplan turbine is 7.5 m/s and blade velocity is 5 m/s. The volume flow rate of water in 20 m3/s. Find the power output available at the shaft if the mechanical efficiency is 93% (in MW)?.
A. 0.831.
B. 0.697.
C. 1.362.
D. 0.298.

580.  In a Kaplan Turbine experimental setup, the power output of the shaft is 4.325 MW. The volume flow rate of water in 15 m3/s at an available head of 50 m. Find the overall efficiency of the turbine in % (g = 10 m/s2)?.
A. 57.66.
B. 83.63.
C. 81.33.
D. 79.95.

581.  The hydraulic efficiency of a Kaplan turbine is 95%, the mechanical efficiency is 93% and the volumetric efficiency is assumed to be 100%. Fine the overall efficiency (in %)?.
A. 80.05.
B. 93.15.
C. 87.55.
D. 88.35.

582.  Which of the following efficiencies for Kaplan Turbine is defined as the ratio between the power available at the shaft to the power supplied by water at the inlet?.
A. Hydraulic efficiency.
B. Volumetric efficiency.
C. Mechanical efficiency.
D. Overall efficiency.

583.  In Kaplan turbine apparatus, the volume flow rate of water in 15 m3/s at an available head of 55 m (g = 10 m/s2). Find the shaft power (in MW) if the overall efficiency of the turbine is 95%..
A. 78.3.
B. 7.83.
C. 783.0.
D. 0.783.

584.  Draft tube is also called_______.
A. Straight divergent tube.
B. Simple elbow tube.
C. Thermal tube.
D. Elbow tube with varying cross section.

585.  A draft tube helps in converting kinetic energy into________.
A. Electrical work.
B. Mechanical work.
C. Chemical work.
D. Thermal work.

586.  Most common application of the draft tube is ______.
A. Rotor.
B. Motor.
C. Pump.
D. Filter.

587.  Draft tube consists of conical diffuser with angles of______.
A. 10 deg.
B. 20 deg.
C. 30 deg.
D. 40 deg.

588.  What is the purpose of a Draft tube?.
A. To prevent flow separation.
B. To avoid Pressure drag.
C. To prevent rejection of heat.
D. To increase efficiency.
Answer = To prevent flow separation

589.  What is the maximum value of efficiency in a draft tube?.
A. 100.0.
B. 50.0.
C. 90.0.
D. 40.0.